The article, Unlocking the Secret of the Bhagavad-gita, I posted on this forum is the result of a research that started in 1991 when I studied the history of the Raja Brothers of Vijayanagara, Southern India. It was during that time (1502-1503 AD) when Lord Caitanya started to advocate the glories of chanting God`s holy names ( Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare/ Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare ). My belief is that the reason why he urged Vaisnavas & Sivaites residing in Southern India to follow his cause was simply to encourage & embolden the Raja Brothers to fight & defend Vijayanagara from being captured by the invading muslims under the Sultanate of Bihar.
Harihara Raya I (1336-1356)
Bukka Raya I (1356-1377)
Harihara Raya II (1377-1404)
Vijaya Bukka Raya (1422-1424)
Deva Raya II (1424-1446)
Mallikarjuna Raya (1446-1465)
Virupaksha Raya II (1465-1485)
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu(1486–1534) was a Hindu saint and social reformer in eastern India (specifically present-day Bangladesh and states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa of India) in the 16th century, believed by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism to be the full incarnation of Lord Krishna. Sri Krishna Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning loving devotion to Krishna/God) based on the philosophy of the Bhagavata Purana and Bhagavad Gita. Specifically he worshipped the forms of Radha and Krishna and popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna maha mantra and have composed Siksastakam in Sanskrit. His line of followers, known as Gaudiya Vaishnavas, revere him as an avatar of Krishna in the mood of Radharani who was prophesised to appear in the later verses of the Bhagavata Purana.
Narasimha Raya II (1491-1505)
Sri Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1529) also known as Krishna Rai was the famed Emperor of Vijayanagara.Presiding over the kingdom at its zenith, Krishna Deva Raya earned the title Rama Ramana Rajya. He was one of the greatest statesmen which medieval South India had produced. The king’s coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna, July 26, 1509.The Portuguese Chronicler Domingo Paes praises Krishna Deva Raya as, “the most feared and perfect King… a great ruler and a man of much justice”. Though a follower of Vaishnavism he showed respect all sects and petty religious prejudices never influenced him either in granting gifts or in his choice of companions and officers.
The highlight of his conquests occurred on May 19, 1520 where he secured the fortress of Raichur from Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur after a difficult siege during which 16,000 Vijaynagar soldiers were killed. The exploits of the chief military commander, Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayudu, during the battle of Raichur were suitably rewarded by the grateful emperor. During the campaign against Raichur, it is said that 703,000 foot soldiers, 32,600 cavalry and 551 elephants were used. Finally, in his last battle, he razed to the ground the fortress of Gulburga, the early capital of the Bahmani sultanate. His empire extended over the whole of South India.
Achyuta Deva Raya (1529-1542) was a ruler of a Vijayanagara Empire of South India. He was the younger brother of Krishna Deva Raya, whom he succeeded in 1529. He patronised Kannada poet Chatu Vittalanatha and the great singer Purandaradasa(Father of Carnatic music) and the Sanskrit scholar Rajanatha Dindima II. Upon his death, the succession was disputed. His nephew, (sister's son) Sadashiva, finally became king while yet a child, under the regency of Rama Raya, a son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya.
Throughout his rule, Achyuta Raya had to contend with the manipulations of Rama Raya who in his powerful capacity had replaced many of the faithfull servants of the Kingdom in high ranking positions with men of his own favour. On more than one occasion the Bahamani Sultans were brought in to play the role of mediator between the king and Ailya Rama Raya in the game of power sharing. This would further weaken the kingdom. In 1542 Rama Raya imprisoned Achyuta Raya in a coup and made Sadasiva Raya the new regent. Rama Raya became the de-facto king and let very little governance in the hands of Sadasiva Raya.
Sadasiva Raya(1542-1570) became king according to the laws of aliya santana which was prevalent among the Bunts caste. He was controlled by his minister Rama Raya, the de facto king, who restored the Vijayanagara empire's power which had diminished after the rule of Krishna Deva Raya. Rama Raya's strategy was to play the Deccan Sultanates against each other by first allying with one and then another.
Conclusion-The Perfect Renunciation Chapter 18
BG 18.64: Because you are My very dear friend, I am speaking to you My supreme instruction, the most confidential knowledge of all. Hear this from Me, for it is for your benefit.
“You have the highest conception of the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa,” Lord Caitanya continued. “Therefore you are seeing Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa everywhere.”
BG 18.66: Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions. Do not fear.
Rāmānanda Rāya replied: “I request that You not try to hide Yourself. I understand that You have accepted the complexion and mode of thinking of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and that You are trying to understand Yourself from the viewpoint of Rādhārāṇī. You have actually advented Yourself to take this point of view. Although You incarnate mainly to understand Your own self, You are at the same time distributing love of Kṛṣṇa to the world. Now You have personally come here to deliver me. Please don’t try to deceive me, I beg You. It is not good for You.”
BG 18.67: This confidential knowledge may never be explained to those who are not austere, or devoted, or engaged in devotional service, nor to one who is envious of Me.
Being very satisfied, Lord Caitanya smiled and showed Rāmānanda His real form as the combination of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Thus Lord Caitanya was Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself with the external features of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. His transcendental ability to become two and then to become one again was revealed to Rāmānanda Rāya. Those who are fortunate enough to understand Lord Caitanya as well as the Vṛndāvana pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa can be able, by the mercy of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, to know about the real identity of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
BG 18.68: For one who explains this supreme secret to the devotees, pure devotional service is guaranteed, and at the end he will come back to Me.
Upon seeing this unique feature of Lord Caitanya, Rāmānanda Rāya fainted and fell on the floor. Lord Caitanya then touched him, and he came to his senses. Rāmānanda Rāya was then surprised to see Lord Caitanya again in His mendicant dress. Lord Caitanya embraced and pacified him and informed him that he was the only one to have seen this form. “Because you have understood the purpose of My incarnation, you are privileged to have seen this particular feature of My personality,” the Lord said. “My dear Rāmānanda, I am not a different person with a fair complexion known as Gaurapuruṣa. I am the selfsame Kṛṣṇa the son of Mahārāja Nanda, and due to contact with the body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī I have now assumed this form. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī does not touch anyone but Kṛṣṇa; therefore She has influenced Me with Her complexion, mind and words. In this way I am just trying to understand the transcendental flavor of Her relationship with Kṛṣṇa.”
BG 18.72: O son of Pṛthā, O conqueror of wealth, have you heard this with an attentive mind? And are your ignorance and illusions now dispelled?
The fact is that both Kṛṣṇa and Lord Caitanya are the original Personality of Godhead. No one should try to eliminate Lord Caitanya from Śrī Kṛṣṇa. In His form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, He is the supreme enjoyer, and in His form of Lord Caitanya, He is the supreme enjoyed. No one can be more superexcellently attractive than Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and but for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, no one can enjoy the supreme form of devotion, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. But for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, all Viṣṇu forms are lacking this ability. This is explained in the description of Govinda in Caitanya-caritāmṛta. There it is said that Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the only personality who can infuse Śrī Kṛṣṇa with transcendental pleasure. Thus Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the chief damsel of Vraja in love with Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
BG 18.73: Arjuna said: My dear Kṛṣṇa, O infallible one, my illusion is now gone. I have regained my memory by Your mercy. I am now firm and free from doubt and am prepared to act according to Your instructions.
“Please rest assured that I have nothing to hide from you,” Lord Caitanya told Rāmānanda. “Even if I do try to hide from you, you are such an advanced devotee that you can understand all My secrets. I request that you please keep this a secret and do not disclose it to anyone. If it were revealed, everyone would consider Me a madman. The facts which I have disclosed to you cannot be understood by materialistic people. When they hear of this, they will simply laugh at Me. You can understand this yourself and keep it to yourself. From a materialistic point of view, a devotee becomes mad in his ecstasy of love for Kṛṣṇa. Both you and I are just like madmen. So please don’t disclose these facts to ordinary men. If you do, they will surely laugh at Me.”
BG 18.75: By the mercy of Vyāsa, I have heard these most confidential talks directly from the master of all mysticism, Kṛṣṇa, who was speaking personally to Arjuna.
Lord Caitanya then passed ten nights with Rāmānanda Rāya, enjoyed his company and discussed the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā. The discussions between them were on the highest level of love for Kṛṣṇa. Some of these talks are described, but most of them could not be described. In Caitanya-caritāmṛta this has been compared to metallurgic examination. The metals compared are discussed in the following sequence: first copper, then bronze, then silver, gold and at last touchstone. The preliminary discussions between Lord Caitanya and Rāmānanda Rāya are considered to be like copper, and the higher discussions are considered to be like gold. The fifth dimension of their discussions, however, is considered to be like touchstone. If one is eager to attain the highest understanding, he must begin with an inquiry into the differences between copper and bronze, then silver and gold and so on.
BG 18.76: O King, as I repeatedly recall this wondrous and holy dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, I take pleasure, being thrilled at every moment.
The next day Lord Caitanya asked Rāmānanda Rāya to allow Him to return to Jagannātha Purī. “We can remain together the rest of our lives at Jagannātha Purī and pass our time in discussing Kṛṣṇa.” Lord Caitanya then embraced Rāmānanda Rāya and sent him to his own place. In the morning the Lord started on His journey. He met Rāmānanda Rāya at a temple of Hanumān on the river bank. After visiting the temple of Hanumān, He left. As long as Caitanya Mahāprabhu remained at Karpūra, all kinds of people met Him, and by His grace everyone became a devotee of the Supreme Lord.
BG 18.77: O King, as I remember the wonderful form of Lord Kṛṣṇa, I am struck with wonder more and more, and I rejoice again and again.
After Lord Caitanya’s departure, Rāmānanda Rāya became overwhelmed due to his separation from the Lord, and he immediately decided to retire from service and meet the Lord again at Jagannātha Purī. The discussions between Rāmānanda Rāya and Lord Caitanya deal with the most concentrated form of devotional service. By hearing these discussions one can understand the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa as well as the confidential role played by Lord Caitanya. If one is actually fortunate enough to have faith in these discussions, he can enter into the transcendental association of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.
BG 18.78: Wherever there is Kṛṣṇa, the master of all mystics, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer, there will also certainly be opulence, victory, extraordinary power, and morality. That is my opinion.
Teachings of Lord Caitanya