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Everything posted by Prabhu

  1. It is amazing to see what a convoluted and coercion based philosophy can do to a country. Pakistan exists in the region where once existed one of the most advanced civilzations in the world ' Indus Valley Civilization' which probably gave the world much of its mathematics, astrology, and other sciences. Today one country after another in the ME region is falling prey to a culture of hatred, mindless violence and extremism, as a result, many of the countries like Afghanistan, Iraq have gone back to dark ages. So much so that one of the architectural wonders of the world the stone statues of Buddha in Bamian has been destroyed by lunatics from dark ages. That also of some one who has enlightened the whole world with his non-violence based philosophy. When these lunatics from dark ages will learn that nothing will be gained by mindless violence and destruction? They are all moving towards self annihilation.
  2. Indeed, this is a sad story. However, this is the true state of most of the religious institutions controlled and run by vested interests who are just milking such institutions for their material nirvana rather than the true elightenment. As the Kaliyuga progresses we will see more and more of such cases. It is almost impossible to go to any religious institution to pray quitely to communicate/pray infront of Deities. These so called priests make sure that no devotee can pray peacefully. After all this is their profession and they are there to prey upon and not pray for pilgrims. I think in India everyone is aware of such things and one has to take it in stride. Best is to just ignore them and some times it is better to fix a rate in advance for any ritual performance. Some of the leading Indian spiritual leaders have said so aptly that all pilgrimages lie in the heart of devotees and you can feel His presence if you are worthy of Him.
  3. Another possibiliy expressed by some of the the Indian philosophers is that Christianity is a derivative of Buddhism. Many of the legends and miracles as mentioned in the Bible appear similar to miracles attributed to Buddha. Buddha existed at least 500 years before Jesus and it has been proven that many of the Buddhist monk preached before Jesus's existence in the areas of the middle-east, Egypt, Iran and hence the possible connection.
  4. First of all one should take such dooms day prophecies with a pinch of salt. Even if Pakistan manages to explode some dirty bomb in India, this can be termed as 'Vinash Kaale Viprit Buddhi' or as the saying goes a person loses his head just before his end. India will survive as it always has in spite of a thousand years of atrocities by the external invaders but Pakistan will be a nuclear waste land on Indian retaliation.
  5. In the Indian history, it has been mentioned that one of the great Rajput rulers of India, Prithvi Raj Chauhan, was an expert in 'Shabd bhedi baan' or that is hittitng a target without seeing the target, that is only on the basis of sound. When he was captured by a Mohammadden invader using deceit; he (blinded by then) and one of his friends used this technique to kill the Muslim invader. This story is being sung as a part of the folklore all over Rajputana/Rajasthan State in India by the traditional/folk singers.
  6. Ram Sethu: Faith afloat on the ocean By Sandhya Jain Early European travellers have recorded that a few hundred years ago, at low tide, the Ram Sethu still served as a land bridge to Sri Lanka. For those of us who heard the Ramayana as children and witnessed the annual lilas by amateur or professional actors, the Ram Sethu lacked its current dimensions in the popular imagination. When Ramanand Sagar made his epochal Ramayana serial in technicolour, he did justice to the episode of the planning and execution of the stone link to Sri Lanka, particularly the rounded rocks that floated with ‘Sri Ram’ inscribed upon them. The astonished disbelief of Ravana to learn that a bridge was forming over the ocean to carry Sugriva’s army across was impressive. Amazingly, for all the attention the television serial Ramayana generated, most of us even then did not know what every fisherman and pilgrim to Rameswaram must have known all this time, viz., that there are to this day heavy rocks that float in the ocean in that area! Toss an ordinary pebble in a pond, it does not float for even a second; yet rocks as heavy as a tonne are floating merrily in the stormy waters at Rameswaram. This reality has now been captured on celluloid by media crews visiting the region in the wake of the controversy rising out of a plan to dredge a shipping canal by destroying a part of the legendary bridge. In an attempt to preserve its ‘secular’ image, the television crew investigating the traces of the historical Ram, joked that the rocks were floating without the legendary ‘Sri Ram’ written upon them. But there is no doubting the impact the floating rocks are having upon believers after some pieces (that came ashore after the tsunami) were taken to different parts of the country and shown to believers. VHP leader Ashok Singhal showed me a piece he was taking probably to the Patna Mahavir temple; it weighed at least 15 kg and was difficult to lift. Yet it floated effortlessly in a large tub in the temple, to the awe and delight of devotees. A group of investigators, including a secular historian who said scholars accepted the Ramayana as literature but did not accord it historical sanctity, also visited sites associated with the story across the Sethu, in Sri Lanka. It bears mentioning here that Sri Lanka is a Buddhist-majority country and neither the political nor religious elites there have any interest in perpetuating the historicity or cultural legacy of Sri Ram. The country has, however, left the sites and stories associated with the god untouched, and these are now being rediscovered by interested Indians after so many centuries. The investigators revisited the geographical features of Lanka’s ‘Sita Eliya’ as mentioned in the epic. The local residents maintain that this was the original Ashok Vatika, where Sita lived in captivity. It is a ruin now, but there is now a temple to mark the Ashok Vatika, which has many ancient statues. A team member reported that they found a fresh water stream descending from the mountains to the left of the temple and falling in a pond at the base of the temple. Nearby is a flat rock with the imprint of a huge foot, which is said to be the foot of Hanuman, who is believed to have visited Sita in the form of a giant. The soil left of the stream is visibly different from neighbouring soil, being black as opposed to the light brown soil on the right side of the stream. This coincides with Valmiki’s assertion that Hanuman burnt Ravana’s Lanka to ashes, and incredible as it seems, there is so far no other explanation for this phenomenon. Equally inexplicable is a mountain on the beach near Ruma Sulla, 150 km north of Colombo, standing upright amidst the ocean and sandy beaches, and looking as thought an unknown hand had manually picked it up from somewhere else and placed it here. The mountains are home to a rich variety of herbs and medicinal plants and the soil here is completely distinct from the other soils found all over the island nation. Yet these details fit in remarkably well with the statements in Valmiki’s Ramayana, and are certainly compelling enough to make an honest modern scholar pause and wonder about the deep truths hidden in the epic. There must be some rational explanation for specific temples associated with the route Sri Ram took from Ayodhya to the forests of Madhya Pradesh and on to the south and up to Sri Lanka. Certain sites are still associated with the rishi ashrams that the exiles met on the way as also the kings and kingdoms encountered en route. Even today in the Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu, there is in Devipathanam a Navgraha Mandir to mark the spot where Ram worshipped the nine celestial planets before building the Ram Sethu. Ram is supposed to have built the original temple himself. For Hindus in India, Sri Lanka, and indeed, all over the world, the Ram Sethu is an object of veneration and the attitude of dismissing it as superstition is most unfortunate. The Union Government’s Committee of Eminent Persons on Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project is truly astonishing for its absence of a mariner and naval or coastguard to examine the security aspect of the project. Concerned citizens rightly lack confidence in such a committee, as most members are selected for political or personal affiliations and even experts in geology and oceanography are missing from the panel. This is a mockery of the Supreme Court order that experts examine the feasibility of the canal, and the cultural heritage of Ram Sethu. Moreover, saturation TV has amply demonstrated that the Ram Sethu is a geological structure inside the ocean, which links India with Sri Lanka. The bridge is made of calcareous sandstones and corals, which are less dense than normal hard rock. Early European travellers have recorded that a few hundred years ago, at low tide, the Ram Sethu still served as a land bridge to Sri Lanka. Temple epigraphs and travelogues recorded in the Madras Presidency Gazetteer of 1893 state that this was possible up to 1799, after which the choppy waters and changing tide patterns may have rendered this difficult. It is pertinent that a shipping channel should be ecologically and economically viable, but the SSCP is both uneconomical and environmentally unsound. As time passes, even the shipping industry is having second thoughts about its economic benefits. The large shipping lines operating ocean services believe that the proposed draught of 10 metres is inadequate for the movement of vessels of 50,000 DWT, and the international trend is to build vessels of 60,000 DWT, which will make the canal redundant and wasteful. Many shipping analysts have questioned the traffic projections on the canal. The Sethusamudram Corporation Ltd view that 3,055 ships would use the canal annually which is excessive, and coastal ship operators are explicit that such traffic is unlikely over the next decade. The canal may benefit coastal shipping in terms of fuel and time costs, but this will be offset by 12 per cent service tax and the constant risk to the canal from heavy sedimentation by the choppy seas, which may make it unfeasible over time. One of the sticky points is the status of fishermen in the region, who are stiffly opposing the project. So far, the government has refused to clarify if fishing will be permitted to continue in the area or not, because if fishing continues, then there can simply be no shipping. Another important point is that for security reasons ships must keep a distance of 200 miles from the Sri Lankan coast, and the channel does not address this concern. Finally, the lack of finances as revealed by Axis Bank (the project banker), seems to de facto rule out completion of the project, which makes continuing expenditure on dredging or maintaining offices and staff a criminal waste of taxpayers' money.
  7. NEW DELHI: Monkey menace in the capital has hit a prominent address of Congress chief Sonia Gandhi's daughter Priyanka, sending officials in a tizzy. Priyanka approached the NDMC after a monkey strayed into her government flat in Lodhi estate and created some trouble, sources said. The enforcement department officials of NDMC brought in a simian to scare away the monkey but could not catch the animal as it ran away. On Saturday, a monkey let loose a nightmare for the residents of Shastri Park in east Delhi, attacking and injuring at least 25 people through the night and fleeing in the early hours of Sunday. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Monkey_strays_into_Priyanka_Vadras_residence/articleshow/2539805.cms
  8. Indeed, these foot prints of Hanumanji in Northern Lanka were shown on Zee news in India. The foot prints are really large and probably created on the rocks when Hanumanji showed Sitaji His virat roopa to allay any doubts in her mind as to what a small monkey can achieve infront of cruel rakshasas. In fact, it was also shown that there still exists Ashok Vatica , where Sitaji was kept by imbecile Ravana. There is a small temple dedicated to Lord Rama, Sita, Lakshamana and Hanuman. The TV reporter also showed that large tracts of hilly areas surrounding the temple still contains black soil or burnt soil probably happened due to burning of Lanka by Sri Hanumanji. There is also a beautiful temple of Hanumanji constructed by Chinmaya mission alongside a small hill which amazingly looks like Hanumanji in a sleeping posture. It is said the strange vibrations occur in the body of any devotee if he/she goes there early in the morning to pray in the temple due to divine presence at that place. Don't worry Sephiroth, let these Kaliyuga rakshasas try and do whatever they like, Lord Rama, Sitaji, Lakshmanji and Hanumanji exists in the heart of devotees. For thousands of years their name and fame have survived in spite of concerted efforts of Rakshasas and look Lord Rama still rules the heart of almost 75 % of Indian people. Like anyone trying to spit on Sun and dirty his own face in the process , these imbecile politicians will meet their nemesis at the hands of vanara sena of Lord Rama - on a lighter side - already signs are there and poiliticians in Delhi are often hounded and bitten by monkeys which roam around their offices in the capital.
  9. Prabhu


    http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/sanskrit/lessons/lessons.html Jai SriRam Jai SriKrishna:)
  10. Sanatana Dharma as a Liberating Force for Women by: Dr.Frank on Jul 11 2005 12:00AM in Religion Prologue: Shakti Ascending The twentieth century witnessed the re-emergence of appreciation for the feminine aspect of God. The concept of God as Goddess, while long the norm in Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism), Yoga spirituality and other pre-Christo-Islamic religious traditions, has achieved wider acceptance in the Western world only in recent decades. As the twenty-first century begins, we find ourselves entering an era in which the more feminine qualities of compassion, nurturing, tolerance and love are rapidly replacing the outmoded anthropomorphic notion of God as a judgmental and vengeful old man in the sky so prevalent in the Abrahamic religions. Coupled with the new acceptance of the importance of the feminine aspects of the Divine, we have also seen a growing recognition of the realm of nature as something that is itself a reflection of God's love in this world. Nature is no longer seen as something apart from God, wild and untamed. But rather, nature is now increasingly recognized as being an essential and especially sacred part of God's grace upon us. And more, an increasing number of both theologians and lay-persons alike are beginning to see nature as being distinctly feminine in essence – a fact that Sanatana Dharma and Yoga philosophy has known and taught for over 5000 years. The Earth is not a static dead rock floating in space that exists solely for man's economic purposes. The Earth was not created by God to be partitioned into artificial geographic regions, over which men will then foolishly war with one another. Rather, she is a living being, a mother, a woman, a Goddess, whom we are to love, respect and nurture - as she so patiently nurtures us. In the Hindu tradition, Mother Earth even has a name: Bhu-devi. In Sanatana Dharma, the dual issues of respecting the ways of nature and respecting women are ultimately inseparable concerns. This work is dedicated to exploring the nature of the feminine aspect of Divinity as seen from the unique perspective of Sanatana Dharma. Sanatana Dharma is the world's most ancient continuously practiced spiritual tradition. It is a wise and venerable tradition. It is a tradition that contains within its ancient teachings some of the most profound, rational, and progressive ideas about the natures of both woman and God. Sanatana Dharma represents a philosophy and world-view that has spiritual liberation as its primary goal. In addition to Sanatana Dharma's vision of achieving the spiritual liberation of all living beings, Sanatana Dharma contains within its philosophical traditions a more immediate visionary framework for the liberation of women. Within the concept of Shakti, we find a profound and spiritually oriented philosophy of women's liberation. It is my hope that this brief introduction to the concept of Shakti will encourage my readers to explore further the teachings of Sanatana Dharma. The Shakti Principle: Encountering the Feminine Power of God The intricate dynamics of power and gender has grown to become an increasingly important topic within the realm of present day society - and justifiably so. Though representing half of the human race, women's voices, needs and inner psyches have, more often than not, been relegated to a place of unimportance in the history of the Western world. Throughout the history of post-Classical European civilization, the nature of the feminine was misunderstood, neglected and, in some cases, practically demonized. Consequently, for millennia women have been deprived of much of the power - political, economic, spiritual, even sexual - which men so take for granted. Recognizing the imperative need to correct this historic imbalance, many modern feminist leaders attempted to devise an ideological framework through which they felt that the roots of this imbalance could be properly understood. Additionally, there have been many attempts to wrest control over the primary mechanisms of power, specifically in the political and economic sectors. As a result, what were at one time conceived as the exclusive domains of the male gender have now begun to open up to women. Feminism as a political movement has, unfortunately, had very mixed results. On the one hand, feminism succeeded to a large degree in opening up to women previously exclusively male arenas. On the other hand, the positive and life-enhancing qualities of the feminine aspect of human nature – and especially the spiritual dimension of the feminine - has been to a very large extent denigrated by the very feminist leaders who claim to speak for women. In the modern West, power is no longer equated with the testosterone laden half of the human race. The question, however, is should this have ever been the view of Western civilization? For, while it may have been the tradition in the post-Classical West to naturally equate power with the masculine, this is not at all a universally held outlook. One world-view that offers us a fresh and radically different approach to the issue of power and the feminine is found in the philosophy and culture of Sanatana Dharma (otherwise known as “Hinduism”) - and specifically in the Vedic concept of Shakti. Within the metaphysical framework of Shakti, we discover the concept of the feminine as being nothing less than the very manifestation of power itself. Power itself, by very definition, is intrinsically feminine according to the Dharmic world-view. In the following work, I'll accomplish three tasks: 1) I'll examine the concept of Shakti as it is found throughout the history and various schools of thought of Sanatana Dharma; 2) I'll explore the historical implications that this concept has contributed in forming the traditional Dharmic view of the nature of the feminine and the subsequent role of women in the social context; and finally 3) I'll share some thoughts on the important role that the principle of Shakti can potentially play in helping to bring about a reemergence of the much neglected and crucially needed feminine in our own Western culture. In addition to serving as a liberating force for women specifically, I believe, the principle of Shakti has the ability to bring about a spiritual renewal of each of us as individuals, as well as of our increasingly global society as a whole. The Vedic Concept of God Each of the major world religions has divergent and exclusive views on what constitutes the ontological and substantial nature of the Absolute (For a definite examination of the essential differences between the world's major religions vis-à-vis Sanatana Dharma, please refer to my work on the topic: A Philosophical Critique of Radical Universalism). The three Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam hold an Anthropomorphic-Monotheistic conception of the Absolute. For these religions, the Absolute consists of one, superlatively powerful being, who interacts with his creation, intercedes actively in human history, and exhibits many of the same emotive features (including anger, judgment, jealousy, vengeance, etc.) of his human devotees. Jainism is Anthropotheistic in outlook. For Jains, the Absolute consists of the sum total of liberated beings. For Buddhists, the only Absolute worthy of adherence is the nothingness (shunya) that constitutes the true nature of reality. Sanatana Dharma is a Panentheistic Monotheism. For Sanatana Dharma, the Absolute is seen in terms of the concept of Brahman, who is both perfectly transcendent, yet simultaneously imminent in all of creation. All that is perceivable and conceivable has its very existence secured due solely to the sustaining presence of Brahman. Brahman is omnipotent (all-powerful), omniscient (all-knowing), omni-present, wholly good, and the source of all attributive excellences to their maximally conceivable degree. Both philosophically and in terms of history, Brahman has been seen in both personal (saguna) and impersonal (nirguna) terms by the great rishis (seers), yogis and acharyas (preceptors) of Sanatana Dharma. Seen in predominantly saguna terms, the highest concept of Brahman (God) in Sanatana Dharma consists of God as a Monistic-Duality. God is One (sat-ekam), unitary, indivisible, and inviolable in essence, yet God is to be simultaneously conceived as a dual co-Absolute moiety of masculine/feminine. As a somewhat comparable example, we know that in Christianity, even though God is taught to be one supreme, anthropomorphic, monotheistic being, he is at the same time viewed as three distinct aspectival beings in the form of the Trinity – “Father”, “Son”, and “Holy Spirit”. God is seen as being three, and yet one. In a somewhat similar manner, in Sanatana Dharma, the Supreme God is simultaneously one, and yet is also a dual being, composed of both masculine and feminine aspects, co-Absolute, co-Infinite, co-Eternal, and together constituting the source of reality. God is seen as being two, and yet one. While Christianity proffers a Trinitarian ontology of God, Sanatana Dharma upholds a “Dualitarian” ontology. God, for Sanatana Dharma, is actually God/Goddess. God is two – yet simultaneously One. The feminine aspect of God, Shakti, is thus seen to be a crucial and indispensable component of the Godhead in both ontological terms, as well as in the functional process of cosmic creation. Indeed, significantly, the very word “Brahman” itself is neither an exclusively masculine nor exclusively feminine noun, but takes the neuter form in Sanskrit grammar. This fact very clearly demonstrates the mutually correlative relationship in which God and Goddess hold one another. In a strictly philosophical sense, of course, when the terms “feminine” and “masculine” are used in both the context of Dharmic ontology, and throughout the contents of this paper, these terms are not in any way referring to genders in a sexual or biological sense. Rather, the terms are referring specifically to purely metaphysical categories and conceptual constructs, the substantial content of which does not refer to “men” and “women” in the normative sense. The Nature of Shakti The Sanskrit word Shakti can be translated as meaning “power”, “force” or “energy.” It is derived from the parasmaipada Sanskrit verb root “shak,” which means “to be able”, “to do”, “to act”. This energetic power is witnessed in all the various phenomena of life. It is the nourishing force responsible for the growth of vegetation, animals, human beings, and of the very Earth Herself. It is what is responsible for the kinetic movement of all things. The planets revolve around the sun as a result of the hidden power of Shakti. It is Shakti that makes the winds blow and the oceans churn. Shakti is manifest as the very affective ability of all the forces of nature. She is the heat of fire, the brilliance of the sun, the very life force of all living beings. In human beings, she is seen as the power of intelligence (buddhi), compassion (daya) and divine love (bhakti), among her many other functions (Sharma, 1974; Goswami 1995). It is the power of Shakti that “...keeps the gods in their position, makes a man virile or makes a sage of a man” (Sharma, 1974). Without the enabling presence of the metaphysical principle of Shakti, all physical creation would be rendered impotent. Most significantly, Shakti is an exclusively feminine principle. Shakti is synonymous with the great Devi, or the Great Goddess of Sanatana Dharma, and is also found to be secondarily manifest in all the many natural and indigenous, pre-Abrahamic religious traditions of the world. As the great Devi, she is omnipresent in Hindu society via her many forms. She is propitiated by all segments of Hindu society, but especially by women. According to Professor Klaus Klostermaier, “...childless women implore her to conceive. In times of epidemics, it is the goddess who is implored to grant health and relief” (Klostermaier, 1990). Shakti has always been a living force throughout the long history of Sanatana Dharma. The Importance of Shakti Throughout the Tradition of Sanatana Dharma The importance of goddesses is evident throughout all the various sects and schools of thought of Sanatana Dharma (Gatwood, 1985). Additionally, the presence of goddesses is seen throughout the long literary tradition of India. In the Rig Veda (c. 3800 BC), for example, at least 40 goddesses are mentioned. These include: Sarasvati, goddess of wisdom; Ushas, the dawn; and Aditi, who is depicted as “birthless” (R.V., 10.7.2.). The very word “Shakti” itself appears in the Rig Veda some 12 times. Two of the word's derivatives, “shaktivat” and “shakman,” respectively appear twice and five times. Part of the Rig Veda text is known as the “Devi Sukta” and is certainly a recognition of Shakti as a cosmic principle. Shakti is directly addressed as the great Devi in the Atharva Veda (1.6.1). Shakti is also seen in the later Itihasas, or Epics of India. She is found in the Ramayana, one of these epics, where “...she is called Devi, and is respected by all” (Sharma, 1974). In the Mahabharata, the other great epic of India, there are two hymns dedicated to glorifying her. The various manifestations of the goddess are ubiquitous throughout another set of Hindu scriptures known as the Puranas. Indeed, the Devi Bhagavata Purana is entirely dedicated to her. One would be hard pressed to find a sacred work anywhere in the entirety of Hindu literature in which there is not at least some mention of a feminine power. Sanatana Dharma's respect for Shakti is not limited to the religion's literary heritage. The various schools of Vedic philosophy (shad-darshanas) also took this principle quite seriously. The Mimamsakas, for example, are a school of philosophy that held that Shakti was no less than the inherent power of all things. The Naiyayika school of logicians attempted to explain Shakti in terms of being the function or property of any cause. For the Vedanta school, the most important tradition of Indian philosophy, Shakti was “...conceived as the activity of a cause revealing itself in the shape of an effect” (Dev, 1987). Of all the various schools of Vedic philosophy, however, the school most influential in helping to formulate a theory of Shakti is the Samkhya school. Prakriti-Purusha Samkhya teaches the dualistic doctrine of Prakriti/Purusha. According to this principle, there are two radically distinct metaphysical principles at play during the creation of the cosmos: matter (Prakriti) and spirit (Purusha). Prakriti is the primordial matter that is present before the cosmos becomes manifest. It is material substance in the form of pure potentiality, pure energy. It is as a direct result of the devolution of this original matter-energy substance that the universe, with all its diversity of names and forms, comes into being. Prakriti is seen as being “...the power of nature, both animate and inanimate. As such, nature is seen as dynamic energy” (Rae, 1994). Prakriti is originally inert, immobile, and pure potentiality by nature. It is only as a direct result of her contact with the kinetic Purusha principle that she then unfolds into the variagatedness that we see before us. Sudhir Gupta explains this process of devolution from the perspective of a Shakta, or a devotee of Shakti, the Great Goddess: The universe with all its diversity and multiplicity remains equated in the divine volition as conception before manifestation. It is manifested in the course of basic evolution, started under the influence of the creative volition of the Divine Mother. The Universal Mother in Her Absolute Self admits of no mutability, change or division. (Gupta, 1977) Thus, Shakti is seen as being antecedent to the principle of Prakriti, with Shakti being the instrumental cause, in the form of the Devi, or the Great Goddess, and Prakriti serving as the material cause. Shakti, as a transcendent being, exists prior to matter (Prakriti). Ontological Moiety: The Dynamic of Divine Consortship The dynamic of Prakriti/Purusha is seen mirrored in another closely allied concept: the divine consort dynamic, or what I call Ontological Moiety. According to the teachings of Sanatana Dharma, Shakti, energy, cannot exist in a vacuum, devoid of meaning and purpose. If there is a discernable energy in any form, it must be an energy that is purposefully mediated and directed by a conduit. Without such purposeful mediation, this energy will lose all functional capacity. Thus, the metaphysical interplay of the symbiotically interdependent dyads of energy/conduit, feminine/masculine, goddess/god, Prakriti/Purusha, Shakti/Shiva, represent the natural dynamism necessary for the functionality of conceptual and perceptual reality as we know it. In a clear reflection of this dyadic dynamism that I call an Ontological Moiety, almost every male divinity (deva) of the Hindu . necessarily has a metaphysically feminine counterpart, a consort, a goddess. This Ontological Moiety, god/goddess principle is a foundational idea that is an indispensable element of every major sect of Hinduism. We see that in every major tradition of Sanatana Dharma, the Supreme Being is ultimately, not just God, but God in the form of God/Goddess. In Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Shaktism, the three largest traditions of Hinduism, the Supreme is ultimately seen as God/Goddess. In orthodox Vaishnavism, for example, the highest ontological Supreme is expressed as the God/Goddess Shriman Lakshmi-Narayana. In Vaisnavism, Sri-Lakshmi is viewed as being co-Absolute, co-eternal, and co-omnipresent with Narayana, and is able to offer liberation, grace, and bhakti in Her own right. Indeed, it is said that the esoteric truth of God's nature is that Narayana is never unaccompanied by Sri-Lakshmi. Even when Narayana descends upon the Earth in the form of avataras, Lakshmi always has Her own avatara who accompanies Narayana. Rama has Sita. Krishna has Radha. The Divine Couple are inseparable. (For a further analysis of the nature and role of Sri-Lakshmi in the Vaisnava tradition, see my paper on the subject: “Visnu-shakti: An Ontological Analysis of the Role of Sri-Laksmi as the Transcendent Feminine Power of the Vaisnava Tradition”). Similarly, for Shaivism, the Ontological Moiety is Shakti-Shiva. In the Shakta tradition, it is Prakriti-Purusha. These goddess-consorts are said to personify nothing less than the essential energy of the god, without which, the god will be rendered impotent and powerless. Thus, rather than speaking of gods and goddesses in Sanatana Dharma as merely personified divinities, it is more correct to speak of these god/goddess dyads as integral and symbiotic moieties. In the words of Ernest Payne: The energy of Vishnu and Shiva was personified as a goddess and identified with Prakriti, the primary source of the universe. The connubial relations between Devi and her husband were held to typify the mystical union of the eternal principles, matter and spirit, which produces the world. (Payne, 1933) So essentially integral is the relationship between a particular male divinity and his Shakti that one is thought incapable of having a meaningful existence without the other. The relationship between god and goddess is similar to the relationship of the sun with sunshine, respectively. The sun is the medium that gives stability and purpose to the energy of sunshine. Both the sun and the sunshine represent two functionally distinctive elements of the one same unitive object. If one of the dual elements were missing, the composite whole would be rendered devoid of conceptual integrity. It is not possible to comprehend the existence of one without the other. The male and the female, masculine and feminine, god and goddess, give mutual meaning and being to each another, both in this world, and in the transcendent realm. We have a vivid example of the interdependence of God/Goddess found in the grammatical rules of classical Sanskrit. It is said that in her manifestation as Shiva's consort and source of energy, Shakti is embodied in the “i” of his name. According to the rules of Sanskrit, if a consonant is not followed by a specified vowel, it is automatically assumed that this consonant is then followed by the vowel “a” by default. Consequently, without this empowering “i” in his name, Shiva becomes shava, or “a lifeless corpse”. It is the empowering presence of Shakti that gives Shiva his very life. Thus it is the feminine principle that is the animating force of life itself. Both the feminine and the masculine are necessarily present in the Divine. This is dramatically illustrated in the image of Ardhanarishvara, the representation of God as being half man and half woman. Veneration of God necessarily entails veneration of the Goddess. They are two aspects of the same one being and are, as such, mutually dependent upon one another in the form of an Ontological Moiety. God and Goddess, masculine and feminine, are one. Shakti as Co-Creator The intimacy of God and Goddess can be more clearly illustrated by examining one of the sacred stories involving the co-creative function of Devi that is found in the Devi Bhagavata Purana. Importantly, although this scripture is clearly a Shakta Purana dedicated to glorifying the great Goddess, the Devi Bhagavata Purana describes Vishnu/Krishna as being the supreme God (IX. 2. 12 - 23) who “...is said to be the root and creator of all” (Dev, 1987). For even the great Devi, ultimately Vishnu/Krishna is seen as being the absolute source of all existence and the one true God. According to this account, Krishna was at one time the only being in existence. Desiring to create the universe, He apportioned His inexhaustible essence into two co-Absolute parts, the left being female and the right male. That female was none other than Radha, the eternal consort and Shakti of Krishna, and who is described as being the Mula Prakriti, or the root source of all existence. From the transcendent conjugal sport of Radha and Krishna a golden egg was born that was the repository of the material from which our universe was created. Thus Devi existed antecedent to even Prakriti as Prakriti's causal and material agent. Creation, then, is depicted in the Devi Bhagavata Purana as proceeding from Krishna, the Supreme Being of Sanatana Dharma, via the power of Radha, His consort and Shakti. Thus both God and Goddess are responsible for the manifestation of Creation. The Metaphysical Interplay of the Masculine and Feminine The relationship that is enjoyed between God and Goddess in Sanatana Dharma is one of the mediator of power (shaktiman, the masculine principal) and the power itself (Shakti, the feminine). Each is ineffectual without the existence of the other. While the possessor of power is the guiding force as to the power's direction and purpose, it is the power itself that provides the ability to perform any task. To use a rudimentary example, we might say that God is similar to the computer while the Goddess is the electricity that makes the computer's functioning possible. Both are different, yet essential, components if a computer is going to have any functional meaning. Shaktiman is the principle that gives guidance and direction to power. Shakti is the vital, life-giving force of God, as well as the personification of His power, inner effulgence, and essence. As Shrivatsa Goswami explains this concept: On the transcendental plane this functional duality implies the split of the Absolute into power or potency (shakti), the subjective component, and the possessor of power (shaktiman), the objective one. On the phenomenal plane too there exists such a duality. (Goswami, 1985) Together, the Deva and Devi, the God and Goddess of Sanatana Dharma, are the “Able” and the “Ability”, respectively. While distinction can be seen between a) the power of ability and b) the able one who projects the power of ability, they are at the same time one and the same. For one gives meaning to the other. In the same way, though an apparent distinction can be seen between God and Goddess, they in actuality together constitute the one Supreme Being in the form of an eternal, transcendent Ontological Moiety. Moreover, this principle of Shakti is not relegated solely to the realm of the Divine, but is clearly reflected in the lives of each and every human being. Made In Goddess's Image: The Feminine Principle Instantiated What is true on the macrocosmic level is also the rule on the microcosmic. As above, so below. Human beings too are said to participate in the interplay of shakti and shaktiman; and in so doing, replicate the perfect wholeness of God/Goddess in their lives. For in Sanatana Dharma, every woman is said to be a partial manifestation of the divine Shakti. Every man, likewise, is a replication of the divine Shaktiman. The Atharva-veda readily confirms this fact: “Women and Men are both born from the Supreme Being; Women are manifestations of the Supreme Being, as are men” (8.9.11cd). The power of Shakti, the feminine principle, is believed to be directly present in creation in the form of our mothers, sisters, daughters, and wives. As the contemporary feminist author Elinor Gadon explains, “the truth of the Goddess is the mystery of our being. She is the dynamic life force within. Her form is embedded in our collective psyche...” (Gadon, 1989). As a natural consequence of this view, Sanatana Dharma encourages all people to have both respect and reverence for women. While Shakti is primarily present as personified in woman, however, she is also present in man in the form of his vitality and strength. The Shakti Principle in Spiritual Practice There are many traditions of spiritual unfoldment in India that teach the notion that Shakti resides within each and every human being, and that spiritual liberation can be achieved by the proper utilization of the feminine principle within. One example of such a tradition is the path of Kundalini-yoga. According to Kundalini-yoga philosophy, Shakti resides at the base of the spine in the form of the kundalini energy. The goal of this path of Yoga is to raise this vital energy through the various energy centers (chakras) of the subtle, or astral, body. As each energy portal is open, the yogi achieves newer and higher levels of spiritual realization and power. Once this Shakti has reached the top chakra located at the crown of the head (sahasrara-chakra, “the chakra of the thousand-petaled lotus”), full self-realization, personal empowerment, and liberation can be achieved. This very process is itself, interestingly, described as the union of Shiva and Shakti (Dev, 1987). In addition to Kundalini-yoga, there is an entire denomination of Sanatana Dharma dedicated to the realization of the Great Goddess, known as Shaktism. The tradition of Shaktism is most influential in West Bengal and Assam. Its influence, however, has been felt throughout the length and breath of South Asia. While some references to Shaktism can certainly be found in the ancient Vedic literature (Sharma, 1974), it is the works known as the Tantras that are considered most authoritative by adherents. Philosophically, the teachings of Shaktism seem to occupy a middle position between the dualism of the Samkhya school and the extremely monistic interpretation of Vedanta posited by the great philosopher Shankara (8th century CE). Unlike the philosophy of Shankara, for Shaktism the world is not seen as being merely an illusionary phenomenon (mithya); it is in fact extremely real. In Shaktism, it is believed that Shakti (the goddess Prakriti) evolves Her own being into 36 tattvas, or constituents of reality, in order to create the universe. The present diversified universe that we see around us is nothing less than the creative manifestation of the uncreated Goddess Prakriti, or Shakti. Prakrti, both in the form of this world and the human body, is in fact viewed as a potential vehicle for salvation. In practice, Shaktism stresses the potentially sacramental nature of the human body due to its being the locus of spiritual unfoldment as a result of the presence of Shakti-devi (Kumar, 1986). For Shaktas, as for the majority of Hindus, women are greatly respected as being the personifications of Shakti in human - and therefore very spiritually accessible - form. The Immediate Impact on Women How has this uniquely positive view of the feminine affected the Hindu perspective on the nature and role of women in the Vedic community? How do metaphysical principles translate to social reality? Men and women are clearly different in a variety of ways. What the precise extent and implications of these difference are, however, are very crucial questions. When acknowledging natural distinctions between the genders that are empirically verifiable realities, it is important to not leap to extreme conclusions about the implications of such differences. To make the irrational claim that there are no differences between the genders, and that any such discernable differences are nothing more than mere social constructs – as many of the more shortsighted feminist theorists attempted in the 1970s – is a claim that is no longer taken seriously by anyone, including most modern women's rights advocates. On the other hand, to artificially accentuate gender differences in such a manner as to unjustifiably claim the superiority of one gender over the other, or as an excuse to oppress women, is clearly going too far in the opposite extreme. What the concept of Shakti has to offer humanity is a balanced, integrated, and healthy approach to the nature of gender, in which the natural distinctions between men and women are acknowledged and celebrated, but without one gender being artificially relegated to a place of inferiority merely due to these discernable differences. Like all other ancient and authentic religious traditions, Sanatana Dharma teaches that, while women and men naturally share much in common (such as the same degree of aptitude for intelligence, moral goodness, spiritual development, courage, etc.), their different psycho-physical states and outlooks should not be overlooked. In very general terms, while men tend to exhibit more aggressive, cerebral (i.e., more mentally absorbed), and self-promoting tendencies, women have a propensity to be more nurturing, intuitive, mature, wise, and giving. While there are certainly always exceptions to any general rule, these very general characteristics are, nonetheless, not negated by the exceptions. Both masculine and feminine qualities are positive and necessary, and it is in the holistic combination of all of these qualities that we find the most effective basis for creating a society that is healthy, progressive, nurturing, just, and spiritually oriented. Interestingly, it is precisely the positive feminine qualities of nurturance, intuition, maturity, wisdom, and generousness that are to be aspired toward in spiritual life - by both men and women. Both men and women should strive to become more loving, more nurturing, more intuitive and giving in all of our inter-personal activities. As is inevitably true for every other religion and culture known to history, individual Hindus have sometimes had difficulty putting their high spiritual ideals into actual practice. Overall, however, the record of Sanatana Dharma vis-à-vis the treatment of women has been an overwhelmingly positive one in comparison to almost any other religion in the world today. As a result, according to Klaus Klostermaier: Traditional Hinduism is still strongly supported by women; women form the largest portion of temple goers and festival attendants, and women keep traditional domestic rituals alive and pass on the familiar stories of the gods and goddesses to their children. (Klostermaier, 1994) As we will see, Hindu women have not only historically enjoyed the respected status of being the repository of Shakti, but have very often actually had the opportunity to wield quite a bit of actual power and authority in the everyday world. The Principle of Shakti and Women of Power Unlike the accounts that are clearly observed in the majority of Western religious literature, Vedic literature is overflowing with colorful accounts of heroic, strong and brave women. There are many accounts of such women in the Mahabharata, one of India's most ancient classical epics. We find Queen Draupadi, for example, who is depicted throughout the epic as a brave and iron-willed woman. There is also Queen Kunti, who perseveres with her honor and her faith intact despite a life riddled with tragedies. Similarly, in the epic Ramayana, we meet Sita, the wife - and Shakti - of Rama, an incarnation of God. Though arranged marriages were the norm in Vedic society (as they were throughout most European cultures until only recent decades), we find that Sita chooses her own husband in a svayamvara ceremony. Also of her own free will, she chooses to accompany Rama to the forest when He is sent into exile, thus exhibiting her strength, fearlessness, and commitment to loyalty (this, despite the fact that the people of Ayodhya offered to make her queen during Rama's exile). While living in the forest, she continues to display her independent nature, as when she convinces Rama to chase the gold-spotted dear. Vedic literature is replete with such examples of strong, and heroic women. Images of powerful women in Sanatana Dharma are not limited to the realm of literature alone. They are also witnessed throughout the living historical record of India as well. Women in the Vedic tradition have historically easily risen to heights of power within various monastic and religious hierarchical structures, parallels of which would have been unheard of in Western religion and society until only extremely recently. In the earliest Vedic era, for example, women were commonly awarded the sacred thread (upavita-sutra) of priests (brahmanas) (Gobhila Grhya-sutra 2.1.9; Klostermaier, 1994). Women were accepted as priests, shared with men the privilege of reciting the Gayatri mantra, and officiated in sacred fire ceremonies (yajna). One section of the Rig Veda (V, 28) mentions that there were multiple female rishis, or revealers of sacred truth. In this section one is specifically named as Vishvara. Of the 407 rishis responsible for revealing the Rig Veda, at least 21 of these were women. There were also very formidable women philosophers such as Sulabha Maitreyi (Mahabharata XII.320), Vadava Prathitheyi (Ashvalayana Grhya-sutra 3.4.4; Shankhayana Grhya-sutra 4.10), as well as Vachaknavi, who debated the sage Yajnavalkya of Upanishadic fame (Madhyandina Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 3.8). Interestingly, the famous Sanskrit grammarian, Panini, observed the distinction in the Sanskrit language between a) “aachaarya”, a male preceptor; b) “aachaaryani” (the wife of a preceptor), and c) “aacaaryaa” (a lady preceptor), indicating that women were thoroughly accepted as spiritual teachers (Ashtadhyayi 4.1.14). Such women saints as Andal (8th century), Mirabai (1498-1546 CE), Jahnavi (16th century), and many hundreds of others were leaders of the devotional Bhakti movement “...that initiated the religious liberation of women [and] was largely promoted and supported by women devotees” (Ibid., 1994). Both Andal and Mirabai were celebrated for being very independent minded women. Mirabai, in fact, was originally a Rajasthani princess who rebelled against her entire royal family in order to devote herself to devotion to Krishna and the path of self-realization. Women have continued this long tradition as leaders of various Yoga and Hindu communities to this day. Such examples of this phenomenon can be seen in the forms of such modern day women gurus as Sri Anandamayi Ma, Gurumayi Chidvilasananda, Amritanandamayi (“Ammachi”), and Meera Ma, among many, many hundreds of others (Johnsen, 1994). Indeed, both historically, as well as today, there is no stratum of authority anywhere within the leadership hierarchy of Sanatana Dharma that has not been held by women at one point or another. For every leadership position held by a man, the same positions have been held by women. This fact is even reflected in the sacred Sanskrit language, in which, for every masculine title of authority, there have always been feminine equivalents. For as long as there have been yogis, there have been yoginis (women yogis). There have been both sadhus (ascetics), and sadhvis (women sadhus); both svamis (masters), and svaminis (women svamis); panditas (scholars) and panditaas (women scholars); bhikshus (mendicants) and bhikshunis (women mendicants); rishis (seers), as well as rishikas (women seers). Considering that Indian culture has always been a culture in which religion has arguably been the most important social institution in society, it is no small accomplishment for women to have risen so high, and to have attained such religiously important titles, in the echelons of Vedic leadership. Shakti and the Abrahamic Religions Such respect for the feminine has not been as readily visible in the history of the Western world, unfortunately. The documented treatment of women in the Western religions has been a truly horrendous record - to state the situation quite lightly. The Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam have not had anywhere near the same abundant degree of women in leadership throughout their respective histories. Indeed, in Abrahamic religious institutions, the norm historically has been to actively and systematically bar women from any and all positions of authority. To this day, for example, women are barred from the priesthood, and any other important position of real authority, in the Roman Catholic Church. There are no women priests, no women monsignors, no women bishops, no women archbishops, no women cardinals, no women Popes. Thousands of wise and independent women healers and herbalists were burnt at the stake by the church during the post-Classical Dark Ages. In strict Islamic nations today, women are not even allowed to drive cars, go to the market unaccompanied by a man, or strive for an education. Throughout the radically patriarchal Islamic world, it is inconceivable that a woman could ever seek to become an imam, or a religious leader of any sort. It has only been in the latter third of the twentieth century that a reemergence of the feminine has slowly begun to take place in European and American societies, and to a very limited degree in some Western religions (specifically Reform Judaism and liberal Protestant denominations). Honoring Our Common Mother For too long has the nurturing influence of the Divine Feminine (Shakti) been in exile from the Abrahamic world. Thus the more masculine qualities of aggression, competitiveness, authoritarian control, and distrust have shaped the collective psyche of the Western world. Recognizing the terrible price that this gaping deficiency has wrought upon the world in the forms of war, terrorism, the environmental crisis, and the exploitation of women and children, many present day women thinkers are openly calling for a reclaiming of feminine spiritual values in many different sectors of life. In the words of Eleanor Rae: “while the feminine is not limited in its context, there are nevertheless certain key places where it is most appropriately rediscovered. These are in women, in the Earth, and in the Divinity” (Rae, 1994). By recognizing the sacred nature of women as personifications of the feminine aspect of Divinity, and by seeing the Earth, not as a lifeless object, there solely for our exploitation, but rather as the living personality of our common Mother (known in Sanskrit as Bhudevi), we can end much of the needless violence and suffering brought about by denying the feminine in our culture. Agreeing with this assessment, Vandana Shiva has written: The violence to nature as symptomatized by the ecological crisis, and the violence to women, as symptomitized by their subjugation and exploitation, arise from this subjugation of the feminine principle. (Shiva, 1989) Ultimately, the ecological, civilizational, and social crises the Earth is currently facing; the need of a greater role for women in positions of religious authority in society; and the much needed re-emergence of the principle of Shakti in the Abrahamic religions, are all one and the same concern. In the metaphysical concept of Shakti, we find a spiritually based philosophical framework in which many practical concerns can be both understood and powerfully addressed. In a crystal-clear display of the ancient concept of Shakti coming full circle to occupy the center stage of current social and intellectual debate, it has finally been recognized that the feminine aspect of the very Divinity Him(Her)self has been too long neglected. In the works of such people as Matthew Fox and Vicki Noble, we are now witnessing a call for the reemergence of the concept of the sacred feminine power of God - of Shakti. In such remarkable developments as these, I venture to say that we are not so much witnessing the “Hinduization” of Western thought, as we are seeing the rediscovery of the metaphysical feminine principle as an integral, a natural, and an inseparable component of healthy religious expression, and of our very being. Conclusion These more recent developments in the West, as well as their origin in the long and positive history of the concept of Shakti in Sanatana Dharma, have shown us that the idea of a sacred feminine power originating from Divinity and, therefore, necessarily inherent in all things, is a very relevant subject for further exploration. This is true both on a social, as well as on a very personal, spiritual level. While arising from the ancient and esoteric depths of the philosophy and sacred stories (divya-katha) of Sanatana Dharma, the Shakti Principle is actually a force that has the ability to affect all human culture: politically, socially, and at the deepest levels of our consciousness. Today, much of humanity is again beginning to hear the loving whispers of our Divine Mother call out to us from within the deepest core of our collective being; from the teachings of the world's most ancient religious tradition: Sanatana Dharma; and from the very depths of the Earth Herself. Shakti-devi is ready and eager to re-embrace us and bring us back to both a personal and a cultural state of well-being - if we will only allow Her to do so. Acknowledgements I wish to thank the following people for their encouragement, support and inspiration: Ms. Frances Elizabeth Morales, Param Pujya Sri Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, Mr. Vishal Agarwal, Dr. David Frawley, Mr. Sashi Kejriwal, Ms. Heather Lim, Dr. Anita Bhagat Patel, Dr. Manan Patel, Professor Mekhala Natavar, Professor David Knipe, Professor Keith Yandell, Professor Ramesh Rao, Dr. Patricia Bauhs. Bibliography Agarwal, Vishal. Women in Hindu Dharma: A Tribute. Unpublished manuscript. Minneapolis, MN. 2004. Bhattacharyya, Narendra Nath. History of the Sakta Religion. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers: New Delhi, 1973. Brown, C. Mackenzie. The Triumph of the Goddess. State University of New York Press: Albany, 1990. Coburn, Thomas B. Devi-mahatmya: the Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass: New Delhi, 1984. Dev, Usha. The Concept of Sakti in the Puranas. Nag Publishers: New Delhi, 1987. Gadon, Elinor W. The Once and Future Goddess. HarperCollins: San Francisco, 1989. Gatwood, Lynn E. Devi and the Spouse Goddess: Women, Sexuality and Marriage in India. Manohar: New Delhi, 1985. Gupta, Sudhir Ranjan Sen. Mother Cult. Firma Klm Private Ltd.: Calcutta, 1977. Hawley, John S. and Donna M. Wulff, eds. The Divine Consort: Radha and the Goddesses of India. Beacon Press: Boston, 1982. Hurtado, Larry W., ed. Goddesses in Religions and Modern Debate. Scholars Press, Atlanta GA, 1990. Johnsen, Linda. Daughters of the Goddess: The Women Saints of India. Yes International Publishers: St. Paul MN, 1994. Johnson, Robert A. Femininity Lost and Regained. Harper & Row: New York, 1990. Kinsley, David. The Goddesses' Mirror: Visions of the Divine from East and West. State University of New York Press: Albany, 1989. ----- Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Tradition. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1986. Klostermaier, Klaus. “Sri Tattva (The Goddess Principle),” Journal of Vaisnava Studies. (4) 1995-96: 21-36. ----- A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press: Albany, 1994. Kumar, Pushpendra. The Principle of Sakti. Eastern Book Linkers: New Delhi, 1986. ----- Sakti Cult in Ancient India. Bhartiya Publishing House: Varanasi, 1974. Lalye, P.G. Studies in Devi Bhagavata. Popular Prakashan: Bombay, 1973. Massey, Marilyn C. Feminine Soul: The Fate of an Ideal. Beacon Press: Boston, 1985. Noble, Vicki. Shakti Woman: Feeling Our Fire, Healing Our World: The New Female Shamanism. HarperCollins: San Francisco, 1991. Payne, Ernest A. The Saktas: An Introductory and Comparative Study. Oxford University Press: London, 1933. Shiva, Vandana. “Development, Ecology and Women,” Healing the Wounds: The Promise of Ecofeminism. Plant, Judith, ed. New Society Publishers: Philadelphia, 1989. Rae, Eleanor. Women, the Earth, the Divine. Orbis Books: Maryknoll NY, 1994. Sebastian, Joseph. God as Feminine: A Dialogue. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 1995. Sinha, Jadunath. Shakta Monism: The Cult of Shakti. Sinha Publishing House: Calcutta, 1966. Stone, Merlin. Ancient Mirrors of Womanhood, Vol. 2. New Sibylline Books: Village Station NY, 1979. Sundar Raj, M. Sakti-Power. International Society for the Investigation of Ancient Civilization: Madras, 1983. Vijnanananda, Swami. The Srimad Devi Bhagavatam. Sudhindra Nath Vasu: Allahabad, 1921. http://www.sulekha.com/blogs/blogdisplay.aspx?cid=4799
  11. SriKrishna is blue because He is knowledgeable, because He is infinite like sea and sky, He is unfathomable like sea and sky.
  12. One of the reasons that liquor is discouraged in Hinduism is the emphasis on control of sense organs. Every school of thought in Hinduism asposes control of sense organs for spiritual upliftment. After drinking one loses control over the sense organs. A person can lose all discrimination thinking capacity which may lead him to commit crimes and other immoral acts. Though in modern life it is difficult to avoid drinking altogather. Best would be to limit it to exceptiona social gatherings. I heard somebody caught up in a Russian social gathering bribed waitor to put water instead of multiple rounds of vodka. Advantage of color.
  13. Swami Vivekananda once said that a religion which cannot wipe tears of a widow and destitute woman cannot be my religion. Every widow has legal right to get married. Scriptures were written thousands of years before when women were dependent upon men and socio economic situation was different. One should ask question to to oneself that if own sister is widowed due to some reason then what would be his suggestion. Wouldn't he wan't his sister to get married? Similarly, if a women is married to an asura, a drunkard, drug addict, or a criminal by fraudulent means then ofcourse she has a right to divorce. Doesn't matter what scriptures say. May be when scriptures were written every man was a holy saint. But in kaliyuga it is difficult to distinguish between some men and beast. If a man can remarry so can a woman. Soul is same in a man or a woman.
  14. God appears before those who are worthy of seeing Him. Hi has a shape and He doesn't have a shape. We are all atomic particles for divine Him. There fore we need to follow the path of Dharma. If you need Him and love Hime He will present thyself. Jai Shri Krishna
  15. Prabhu


    Read previous posts with newspapers link of Reincarnations in India. There is enough proof of that. Some reading material: Reincarnation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Reincarnation, as a doctrine or mystical belief, holds the notion that one's 'Spirit' ('Soul' depending on interpretation), 'Higher or True Self', 'Divine Spark', 'I' or 'Ego' (not to be confused with the ego as defined by psychology) or critical parts of these returns to the material world after physical death to be reborn in a new body. The natural process is considered integrative of all experiences from each lifetime. A new personality feature, with the associated character, is developed during each life in the physical world, based upon past integrated experience and new acquired experiences. Some Reincarnation theories express that usually rebirth is made each time in alternated female and male type of bodies. Also that there is interaction between predeterminism of certain experiences or lessons intended to happen during the physical life, and the free-will action of the individual as they live that life. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reincarnation
  16. Rmeber what Krishna said in Bhagawata Gita: Whenever and wherever there is decline of Dharma and Dharmic people are tortured, I descend myself in age after age. It is prerogative to decide when He wants to come. In Kaliyuga, it is best to dharmic path and remembering Him all encompassing divine SriKrishna. Jai Shri Krishhna Jai Shiv Shambho
  17. Sri Rama is considered to be fair complexioned. Sri Vishnu Himself is considered to be having deep blue color. Hence many of His incarnation also have blue color. He is considerd to be residing in Kshirasagar (ocean) also of blue color. The color of Sky is also blue. In Bhagawata Gita, when Sri Krishna showed his complete Swarupa which encompassed everything which included the whole universe. MAy be it is symbolic of whole of universe.Everything emanates from Him and ultimately goes back un to Him. Appearance of Lord in various colors shows that for Him skin color doesn't matter. Jingoists Dravidians like Shivite note that there is no color basis discrimination in India.
  18. Amma On the morning of the 27th of September 1953, in a small poor fishing village, Parayakadavu in the Quilon district of Kerala, a baby girl was born. Her parents gave her the name Sudhamani. She came into this world not in tears as babies usually do, but with a beaming smile on her face, as if prophesying the joy and bliss she was to bring to the world. Sudhamani spent the years of her childhood and teens immersed in intense spiritual practices in order to present a living example for the world. Even as a small child, she could often be found absorbed in deep meditation, totally oblivious of her surroundings. By the age of five, she had already begun composing devotional songs laden with deep mystical insight. Another quality that was clearly manifest in Sudhamani from this tender age was her love and compassion toward her fellow human beings. Though only a child, Sudhamani did whatever she could to ease the suffering of her elderly neighbors. She washed their clothes, bathed them and even brought them food and clothing from her own home. This habit of giving away things from her family’s house landed her in deep trouble. However, no amount physical abuse or punishment could stop the expression of her inborn compassion. She later said, " An unbroken stream of Love flows from me towards all beings in the cosmos. That is my inborn nature." ‘Amma’ as she is known all over the world today, has inspired and started innumerable humanitarian services. She has earned international recognition for her outstanding contributions to the world community. She is recognized as an extraordinary spiritual leader by the United Nations and by the people all over the world. Though Amma makes no claims herself, those who watch her closely notice that she is the greatest example of her teaching. Her disciples and believers imbibe her teachings by just watching her. For the past 30 years Amma has dedicated her life to the uplifting of suffering humanity through the simplest of gestures – an embrace. In this intimate manner Amma had blessed and consoled more than 21 million people throughout the world. When someone asked Amma why she receives every person who comes to her in a loving embrace Amma replied, “ If you ask the river,' why do you flow?' what can it say?” Amma spends most of her waking hours receiving the distressed and all who come to her for comfort, day after day without a break. Once a press reporter asked Amma how was it possible for her to embrace each and every one in the same loving way, even if they were diseased or unpleasant. Amma replied, “ When a bee hovers over a garden of varied flowers, what it beholds is not the difference between the flowers but the honey within them. Similarly Amma sees the same Supreme Self in each and every one.” As Dr. Jane Goodall, while presenting Amma with the 2002 Gandhi-King Award for Non-violence said, " She stands here in front of us. God's love in a human body." http://www.ammachi.org/amma/index.html
  19. SRI SARADA DEVI, THE HOLY MOTHER [1853 - 1920] "When Holy Mother came to Dakshineswar at the age of sixteen, Sri Ramakrishna asked her whether she had come to pull him down to a worldly life. Without hesitation she said, "No, I am here to help you realize your Chosen Ideal." From then on, Holy Mother lived with Sri Ramakrishna as his spiritual companion, devoted wife, disciple, and always the nun. She was the embodiment of purity. Her mind was never sullied by the faintest breath of worldliness, though she lived with Sri Ramakrishna for the greater part of fourteen years. She never missed communion with God, whom she described as lying in the palm of her hand, though she was engaged day and night in various activities. "Holy Mother was an unusual awakener of souls. With her disciples she served as teacher, dissolving their doubts, as mother, who through love and compassion won their hearts, and as the Divinity, who assured them of liberation. Herself nearly illiterate, through simple words she taught them the most profound truths. Her affectionate maternal love tamed their rebellious spirits; but her great power lay in her solicitude for all. Often she said, "I am the Mother, who will look after them if not I ?" She encouraged them when they were depressed because of slow spiritual progress, and she took upon herself their sins and iniquities, suffering on that account. "Holy Mother was conscious of her divine nature, but she rarely expressed this awareness. For many years Sri Ramakrishna practiced great austerities and formally renounced the world, but Holy Mother lived as a simple householder, surrounded by quarrelsome and greedy relatives. As a teacher she taught the realization of God alone is real, and everything else, impermanent. The human body so treasured by most people, survives cremations as only three pounds of ashes. Holy Mother -- humility itself -- claimed that she was in no way different from other devotees of the Master. Her disciples felt awed and uplifted when she blessed them by touching their head with the same hand which had touched the feet of God. She was fully aware of her disciples' present limitations and their future possibilities. No one went away from her with a downcast heart. "The outstanding virtues of Indian womanhood are courage, serenity, self-control, sweetness, compassion, wisdom, and an intuitive relationship with God. Holy Mother possessed all these virtues. Since the acquisition of such gifts is the dream of all women, Holy Mother may aptly be seen as the symbol of aspiration of women everywhere
  20. OTHER GREAT WOMEN - II KAMALADEVI CHATTOPADYAY (1903-1988) She was born in a wealthy Saraswat family of South Kanara. She went to London for her higher studies. She married Harindra Nath Chattopadyay, the brother of Sarojini Naidu. She held many distinguished positions in public life. She will however be more remembered for her contributions towards growth of handicrafts and folk arts in the country. She was the recipient of many awards including Padma Vibhushan. She died on 29-10-1988. ARATI GUPTA (SAHA) (1940-1994) She hailed from an orthodox Brahmin family of Kheora. She was married to Ramani Mohan Chakravarthy who later became her devotee. She did not have any formal education. From her very childhood she was spiritually inclined and she remained immersed in herself all the time. She travelled extensively preaching love, compassion and self discipline. She established Ashrams charitable institutions and hospitals everywhere. She breathed her last on 27th Aug. 1982. JIJABAI She was the mother of Shivaji. Her husband Shahaji Bhosle was in the service of Ahmednagar kingdom. Jijabai's life is an example of how a mother can transform the lives of individuals, society and even a nation. Jijabai narrated stories of bravery to her son Shivaji and gave him training in martial arts and equipped him for the role he was to play in the years to come. Shivaji's bravery skill and exploits were the direct result of the training he received from his mother Jijabai and she remained the silent source of strength inspiration and power behind him. SAVITRIBAI PHULE (1831-1897) Savitribai Phule was the wife of the social reformer Mahatma Jyotirao Phule. Women's education, liberating women from the cultural patterns of the male dominated society, widow remarriages, removal of untouchability became a mission of life for her. In 1852 she opened a school for untouchable girls. In 1868 she welcomed untouchables to take water from her well. In 1973 she adopted a son of a widow. Hers was a life of struggle against the evils of society she died on 10-3-1897). SISTER NIVEDITA (1867-1911) Sister Nivedita (Margaret Noble) was born on 28-10-1867) in Northern Ireland. She met Swami Vivekananda in London in 1895 and became his disciple. She came to India in 1898. In India she engaged herself in running a school for girls and young women. After Swamiji's death she involved herself actively in the Freedom Movement. She maintained close association with Sri Arobindo, Rabindranath Tagore, Gokhole and J.C. Bose and her writings and speeches attracted notice. She died in 1911. NELLI SENGUPTA (1886-1973) Nelli Sengupta was an English lady who married Jatindra Mohan Senguta in 1909 and came to India to live in Chittagong. She supported her husband whole heartedly in his role in the National Movement. She was elected un-opposed to Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1940 and 1946. She was the president of Indian National Congress in 1922. After partition she opted to live in East Pakistan. Later she came to India for medical treatment and died in Calcutta in 1973. INDIAN WOMEN IN AVIATION Mrs. Urmila K. Parekh was the first Indian woman to obtain pilot's licence is 1930. Her photograph was published in the magazine "Indian Aviation" in July 1931 as the first Hindu woman to receive the air pilot's licence. The following are some of the major achievement stories of women in aviation after Independence. Prem Mathur (born on 25-08-1924) obtained commercial pilots license in 1947 and started flying in 1948 at Allahabad joining Deccan Airways. She co-piloted a scheduled flight on 24-10-1951. Capt. Durba Banerjee started her aviation career flying Dakota as an Air Survey Pilot in 1959,joined Indian Air Lines in 1966 and retired from there on 30-11-1988 and she has to her credit the most flying hours with 18500 hrs. Cpt. Saudamini Deshmukh with co-pilot Nivedita Bhasin and two air hostesses flow I.C. 258 (Being 737-200) from Silchar to Kolkata on 15-01-1986, and I.C. 169 jet flight (Boeing 737-200) on Mumbai - Goa sector with 126 passengers on board on 16-09-1989 Dr. Kalpana Chawla became the first Indian born Astronaut in 1997.dian VIJAYA RAJE SCINDIA (1919 - 2001) Vijaya Raje Scindia was one of the most respected political leaders of the country. She was born in an aristocratic family and had her education from Dr. Annie Besant Theosophical college Banaras and Thorborne college Lucknow and received honorary Doctorate from Vikram University Ujjain. She was married to Maharaja Jivaji Rao Scindia in 1941. For the first time in 1957 she won the election to Loksabha and went on to win several elections there after. Her husband died in 1961 and she spent the remaining part of her life in working for several social and political causes close to her heart. All through her life she kept a distance from position of power even when she was the popular choice to the post of Chief Minister of MP and President of Bharatiya Janata Party. Despite being actively involved in politics, she remained committed to the spread of education and helping the poor and down -trodden. She initiated many projects for the benefit of the weaker sections of society around Gwalior.
  21. OTHER GREAT WOMEN SUBHADRA KUMARI CHAUHAN (1904-1948) She was a great Hindi poetess who combined in her personality the patriotism of Joan of Arc and the lyricism of Meera. She was born in a village called Nihalpur in Allahabad. Married to Thakur Laxman Singh of Khandwa in 1919 she became a devoted wife and a mother. She plunged into National Struggle and was the first woman Satyagrahi to court arrest in Nagpur. She wrote highly inspiring patriotic poems like 'Senani Ka Swagat;' Veeronka Kaise ho Vasant'. Her 'Jhansi ki Rani' was one of the most recited and sung poems in Hindi literature. She died in a car accident on 15-02-1049. SHREE MA ANANDA MAYI (1896-1982) She hailed from an orthodox Brahmin family of Kheora. She was married to Ramani Mohan Chakravarthy who later became her devotee. She did not have any formal education. From her very childhood she was spiritually inclined and she remained immersed in herself all the time. She travelled extensively preaching love, compassion and self discipline. She established Ashrams charitable institutions and hospitals everywhere. She breathed her last on 27th Aug. 1982. MAHADEVI VERMA (1907-1987) She was one of the greatest Hindi poets of all times. Born in Farukhabad UP she served as principal of the Prayag Mahila Vidyapeeth. She was an M.A.in Sanskrit. Some of her publications are Nihar (1930), Rashmi (1932), Neeraja (1934), Sandhya Geet (1936) and Deepshika (1942). She was honoured by Padma Bhushan by the President of India. She died on 11-09-1987. RUKMINI DEVI ARUNDALE (1904-1986) She was a renowned exponent of Indian Classical Dances and founder of Kalakshetra in Madras - a Gurukula type institution where dance, music sculpture and crafts are taught. It was through her efforts that the first Montessori school was started in the country. She was instrumental in the passing of the bill for the prevention of cruelty to animals and the establishment of Animal Welfare Board. She died on 24-02-1986. BEGUM AKHTAR Begum Akhtar was a renowned Ghazal singer who had reached legendary heights of musical excellence. She was popularly known as Malika-I-Ghazal, Queen of Ghazals. She enthralled the audience by her singing for nearly three decades from 1940. NARGIS DUTT Nargis Dutt was a legendary figure as a film artist and social worker. She was the the first Indian artist to receive international award for the best actress at the Karloy Vary Film Festival (1958), she was the first actress to receive the Urvashi Award (1968), she was the first actress to be decorated with Padmashree Award (1958) she was the first actress to be nominated to Rajyasabha (1980) . In the area of social welfare Nagis Dutt started the country's first society and school for spastics in 1972. It has now branches all over the country taking care of thousands of families.
  22. WOMEN RULERS AHILYABAI HOLKER (1725-1795) Born in Ahmednagar of Maharashtra to Manakoji Shinde in 1725. Married to Khande Rao in 1733. When Khande Rao died in the battle of Kumbher in 1754 Ahilyabai learnt to run the princely State of Holker under the stewardship of her father-in-law Malhar Rao Holkar. With the death of her father-in-law in 1766 the entire responsibility of running the State devolved on her. She proved herself to be an enlightened ruler from then onwards till her death in 1795. RANI RASHMONI (1793 - 1861) Born in a poor family she was married into a wealthy zamindar family of Calcutta. After the death of her husband the management of zamindari fell on her shoulders and she showed great managerial skill and leadership in her new role. Rani Rasmoni's nationalist outlook brought her in direct confrontation with the British rulers and each time and every time she had her way and the British could not prevail upon her. She was extremely religious and led an austere life. Construction of the temple complex on the banks of the Ganges, a number of bathing ghats on the river, a road from the Subarnarekha river to Puri for the benefit of the pilgrims and substantial contribution to the then Imperial Llibrary (now National Library) and Hindu College (now Presidency College) bear testimony to her benevolence.
  23. WOMEN LEADERS - II KASTURBA GANDHI (1869-1944). She was the daughter of Gokuladas Makharji of Porbunder. She was married to Gandhi at the age of 13. Simple and self- effacing she stood devotedly by her great husband in all his trials and tribulations. She was in the thick of the Freedom Movement and went to jail several times. The shock of country wide arrests during Quit India Movement deteriorated her health and she suffered a severe heart attack. She breathed her last on 22-2-1944. KAMALA NEHRU (1899-1936) She was the daughter of Pandit Jawaharlal Mul, a businessman of Delhi. Married to Jawaharlal Nehru at the age of 17 she gave birth to the only daughter Indira Priyadarshini. Within 3 years of marriage her husband plunged into Non-cooperation Movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Kamala was a woman of great courage and determination and she also threw herself into the Civil Disobedience Movement and the historic Dandi March by Mahatma Gandhi. Her brave and heroic role in the freedom struggle left an indelible imprint on the Nationalist Movement. She died at a very young age on 28-02-1936. DURGABAI DESHMUKH (1909 - 1981) She was the mother of social work in India. She was born in a middles class Andhra family in Kakinada. In 1937 she founded Andhra Mahila Sabha in Madras which to-day runs two hospitals, 2 colleges and 3 high schools. As Member of . she worked to set up a social welfare board on 13-8-1953 to carry out programmes of educating, training and rehabilitating the needy women, children and the disabled. She was the recipient of a number of awards including Padma Bhushan and the UNESCO award for outstanding work in the field of literacy. RAJKUMARI AMRIT KAUR (1889 - 1964) She was born in a Royal family of Kapurtala. Her father was Raja Harnam Singh. She had her education in London. When she returned to India at the age of 20 her father kindled in her the flame of National Movement. She took part in Salt Satyagraha and Quit India Movement and also became an active social worker. She was the first woman to hold a post in the cabinet as Minister in 1947. Her major contribution as Minister of Health was the setting up of All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. She remained a Rajya Sabha Member till her death on 02-02-1964 RUKMINI LAXMIPATHI (1892-1951) She was born in an agriculturist family in Madras and was married to Dr. Achanta Laxmipathi. Rukmini was deeply influenced by national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu and C. Ragopalachari. She joined the congress in 1923 and gave all her jewellery to Harijan Welfare Fund. She actively participated in Salt Satyagraha and had to undergo imprisonment for a year. She was elected to Madras Legislative Assembly in 1937, and served as Health Minister in T. Prakasan Ministry in 1946. She was a great social reformer and worked for the upliftment of women in society. She died on 6-8-1951. VIJAYALAXMI PUNDIT (1900-1990) She was the younger sister of Jawaharlal Nehru. She was the first woman to be elected president of the United Nations General Assembly (1953-54). She joined the National Movement inspired by Gandhiji's call and courted arrest in 1932 and 1940. She served as ambassador of India in USSR, USA, Mexico, Ireland and Spain and also as High Commissioner of UK. She was elected to Loksabha in 1952 and 1964 and served as Governor of Maharashtra during 1962-64. INDIRA GANDHI (1917-1984) Born in Allahabad she had education in Switzerland, Oxford, Bombay, Pune and at Shantiniketan. She married Feroz Gandhi in 1942 and had two sons Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi. She provided dynamic leadership to the country as Prime Minister from 1966 - 1977 and again from 1980-1984. She abolished privy purses, nationalized Banks and launched a twenty - point programme for the eradication of poverty in the country. She had been the recipient of many International and National awards including Bharat Ratna in 1972 She was assassinated on the morning of 31-10-1984 and India lost a most charismatic leader in her death. MEERA BEHN (1892 - 1982) She was born as Madeleine Slade in an aristocratic family in England. She read Romain Rolland's book 'Mahatma Gandhi' at one sitting and this changed the course of her life. She came to India and remained with Gandhiji. Gagndhiji gave her the name Meera in view of her devotion to him and her dedication and service to India. In India she was sent to Kanya Gurukul at Dehradun where she studied Hindi and scriptures and taught English there. She accompanied Gandhiji to the Round Table Conference in 1932 and acted as Gandhiji's interpreter in the continents on their way back. She joined the Satyagraha Movement and was imprisoned once with Kasturba and twice by herself. She was arrested along with Bapu on 9-8-1942 and was in the Aghakhan Palace Detention camp till May 1944. On 18-1-1959 she left the shores of India and settled in a small village near Vienna and died there on 20-7-1982 . She was awarded Padma Vibhushan in January 1982.
  24. WOMEN LEADERS BHIKAIJI CAMA (1861-1936) Madam Bhikaiji Cama was the mother of Indian revolution. She was born in a rich Parsi family and was married to Rustum Cama, a well known solicitor of Bombay. The political events in India influenced her deeply and she delved deep into politics. In 1907 Madam Cama attended the second International Socialist Congress at Stutgart, Germany where she presented India's case for Independence most forcefully and at the end of her speech she unfurled the Indian Tricolour with Vande Mataram insigmia thereon for the first time on foreign soil and made history for India by asking the congregation to stand up and salute. This woman of extraordinary courage and intelligence passed away on 16-08-1936. BEGUM HAZRAT MAHAL Begum Hazrat Mahal was also known as Begum of Avadh. During the First War of Independence in 1957-58 the British deported her husband Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Lucknow to Calcutta. The Begum joined hands with the mutineers and seized control of Lucknow. She rejected with contempt the promises of allowance and status held out to her by the British and resisted the British forces with all her might. she, however, could not hold out for long and escaped to Nepal where she died in 1879. ARUNA ASAF ALI (1909 - 1996) She was born in a Bengali Brahma Samaj family at Kalka in Haryana. She married Asaf Ali a prominent lawyer of Delhi against convention. She actively participated in the National Movement for Independence. Following the arrest of all congress leaders in 1942 she went underground to guide the movement evading police arrest. She became the symbol of the spirit of youth in this country guiding and leading the National Movement from underground. She remained underground till 1946 when the warrant of arrest was withdrawn. Aruna belonged to the heroic age of Freedom Movement. With this background, after Independence she could not adjust to the political realities and chose to live in retirement till her death on 29th July 1996. She was awarded Bharat Ratna (1997) Posthumously. RANI GAIDINLIU (1915 - 1993) Born in Nangkao village of Manipur she came in contact with the political and spiritual leader of the Nagas Haripau Jadonang who started a movement to drive away the British from Manipur. When Jadonang was hanged by the British Gaidinliu took over the leadership and challenged the Britishers. The British Govt. tried to suppress her movement. She went underground. The army made a house to house search and finally captured her in 1932 and sentenced her to life imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru called her "Rani of the Nagas" for her indomitable spirit and aggressive fight against the British. She spent more than 15 years in jail and was released only after Independence. She was honoured with Tamrapatra and Padma Bhushan. She died on 17-02-1993. ANNIE BESANT (1847-1933) (The year of Birth is incorrectly shown on the stamp ) From the time she landed in India in 1893 and till her death in 1933, Annie Besant worked whole heartedly for the advancement of India in every field - educational, social, religious and political. Though born an English woman she turned an Indian by her love for this country. She was the founder of Theosophical Society in Madras. In 1917 she was elected the Congress President at the Calcutta Session. With the active support of Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru and Rt. Honourable V.S. Srinivasa Shastry Annie Besant worked whole heartedly towards fulfilment of Indian political aspirations. She died in 1933. SAROJINI NAIDU (1879-1949) Born in Hyderabad, she was the eldest of the eight children of Aghorenath Chattopadhyay and Baradasundari. She passed her matriculation at the age of 12 standing first in the whole of Madras Presidency. She did her higher studies in London. She was a poet of merit and her proems received rave reviews in the English press. She came to be regarded as the Nightingale of India. She had a happy married life with Dr. M. Govindarajulu Naidu, Chief Medical Officer to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Sarojini Naidu was in the forefront of the National Movement. She was elected the Congress President at Kanpur Session in 1925. She went to jail several times. After Independence she became the Governor of UP and she died in office on 2-3-1949.
  25. MEERA BAI In medieval India Bhakti Movement was started by enlightened saints like Ramananda, Kabir, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Gurunanak and others. They showed the path of Bhakti to attain salvation. Meerabai belonged to that cult. Born in early 16th century Meerabai belonged to the royal family of Mewar. She renounced the luxuries of royal life and became an ardent devotee of lord Krishna. Meera composed many devotional songs in praise of Lord Krishna which are sung to this day with great reverence throughout the country. She died at the feet of Lord Krishna of Dwaraka at the age of 67. SHREE MA ANANDA MAYI (1896-1982) She hailed from an orthodox Brahmin family of Kheora. She was married to Ramani Mohan Chakravarthy who later became her devotee. She did not have any formal education. From her very childhood she was spiritually inclined and she remained immersed in herself all the time. She travelled extensively preaching love, compassion and self discipline. She established Ashrams charitable institutions and hospitals everywhere. She breathed her last on 27th Aug. 1982. THE MOTHER (PONDICHERRY) (1878-1973) She was born in Paris. She was spiritually inclined and chose India as her permanent place of residence. On coming into contact with Sri. Aurobindo she decided to become his disciple. The mother worked towards universal harmony and peace. She became the spiritual head of the Aurobindo Ashram at Pondicherry. She breathed her last on 17-11-1973
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