Caste, correct name is Varna Based System. The perfect system of Governance.
Brahmin : Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance, honesty, knowledge, wisdom and religiousness — these are the natural qualities by which the brahmins work. (Bhagavad Gita 18.42)
The Brahmins who possess these qualities should be Advisers, Teachers.
Ksatriyas : Heroism, power, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and leadership are the natural qualities of work for the ksatriyas.(Bhagavad Gita 18.43)
The Ksatriyas who posses these qualities should be Rulers, Warriors and should get advice from the Brahmins on how to govern a society.
Vaisyas and Sudras : Farming, cow protection and business are the natural work for the vaisyas, and for the sudras there is labor and service to others. (Bhagavad Gita 18.44)
Vaisyas are supposed to provide Food and Clothing to the entire Society. They are also traders, Merchants etc. While the Sudras provide Manual Labor for the Vaisyas like working the farm, Helping the Ksatriyas in devoloping weapons and providing the Brahmins with the neccessary service.
All four Varna Divisons should have a Common Goal.
All four division should have a common goal, and that goal is offering its fruits from their respective service to God, instead of gaining it for themselves. So when a Sudra works on a farm, he should have a conscious of doing it for God rather then doing it for himself. A Vaisyas should have a Concious that "I'm building this Farm for God and not for my personal Gain". A Ksatriya should Fight for God, so in this aspect he should make sure that No Women,Children,Old and the sick be killed. Finally a Brahmin should educated the Society and offering its fruits to God instead for himself.
When there is a Common Goal, like God Conciouss then only the Society will be peaceful and Stable.
A Common Goal where everyone should work for God(Krishna) instead for themselves.
The excerpt is part of a transcript of a conversation between Srila Prabhupada and Professor Grigoriy Kotovsky,(then)head of the India Department at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Indian studies department at the University of Moscow.The conversation took place in 1971 in the U.S.S.R
Prof. Kotovsky: But by creating brahmanas from different social classes of society, you deny the old prescription of the Hindu scriptures.
Srila Prabhupada: No, I establish it.
Prof. Kotovsky: According to all scriptures--the Puranas, etc.--every member of one of these four classes of varnas has to be born within it.
Srila Prabhupada: No, no, no, no.
Prof. Kotovsky: That is the foundation of all the varnas...
Srila Prabhupada: No, no. I am sorry.
Prof. Kotovsky: The foundation of all the varnas...
Srila Prabhupada: You have spoken incorrectly. With great respect I beg to submit that you are not speaking correctly. In the Bhagavad-gita (4.13) it is stated, catur-varnyam maya-srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah. "These four orders of brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas, and sudras were created by Me according to quality and work." There is no mention of birth.
Prof. Kotovsky: I agree with you that this is the addition of later brahmanas who tried to perpetuate these qualities.
Srila Prabhupada: That has killed the Indian culture. Otherwise there would have been no necessity of the division of part of India into Pakistan. Not only that, but from the historical point of view this whole planet was Bharata-varsa, and it was controlled by one flag up to the time of Maharaja Pariksit. Then it gradually separated. This is history. Lately they have separated Pakistan. So Bharata-varsa is now crippled into a small piece of land. Otherwise, according to Vedic scripture, this whole planet is called Bharata-varsa. Formerly it was named Ilavrta-varsa. But since Emperor Bharata ruled this planet, it is called Bharata-varsa. So this culture, Krsna consciousness, was always existent. Consider any religion--Christian, Muhammadan, Jewish. They are at most two to three thousand years old. But you cannot trace out the beginning of this Vedic scripture. It is therefore called sanatana, eternal. This culture is for this whole human society. It is not a religious faith. Religious faith you can change, but real dharma you cannot change. Try to understand Krsna. In the Bhagavad-gita (18.66) He says, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: "Give up all other forms of religion and just surrender to Me." That is real knowledge--to surrender to the Supreme. You or I--anyone--is surrendered to someone. That is a fact. Our life is by surrender, is it not? Do you disagree with this point?
Prof. Kotovsky: To some extent you surrender.
Srila Prabhupada: Yes, to the full extent.
Prof. Kotovsky: You have to surrender to the society, for instance. To the whole people.
Srila Prabhupada: Yes, to the whole people, or to the state or to the king or the government or whatever you say. This surrender must be there.("Spiritual Communism")
So you can see that according to the Bhagavad Gita, the four orders of brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas, and sudras were originally created by Krishna according to quality (guna) and work (karma), not by mere station of birth.
I think it would not be inaccurate to say that the caste system, as in the four orders of brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas, and sudras exist in virtually all societies. In every society, there is an elite group of intellectual people like professors, politicians and the clergy. These people would constitute the brahmana order. Then there would be the military men responsible for defending the country. These people would constitute the order of the ksatriyas. Then there would be the commercial traders in charge of the economic welfare of the country ---the vaisyas.Then there are the workers who do the manual labour necessary to maintain the assets of the society like various infrastructure. The Brahmana can be compared to the brain of the society, the Kshatriya its arms, the Vaisyas its stomach and the Sudra its feet. It is quite evident that these four orders are present in virtually all societies.
In the past, the caste system was abused. description of the process of this abuse as follows:
The upper classes gradually neglected their duties. The test of ability and character slowly disappeared. Birth became the chief consideration in determining caste. All the castes fell from their ideals and forgot all about their duties. The Brahmins became selfish and claimed superiority over others by mere birth, without possessing the necessary qualities. The Kshatriyas lost their chivalry and spirit of sacrifice. The Vaishyas became avaricious and greedy. They did not earn their wealth by honest means. They did not look after the economic welfare of the people. They did not do charity. They also lose the spirit of sacrifice. The Sudras gave up service. They became officers. They wished that others should serve them. The greed and pride of man created discord and disharmony.E(Kingly Science Kingly Secret by Swami Sivananda, Chapter 6: The Caste System)
As I understand it, the caste system, i.e. the four orders of intellectuals, warriors, merchants and labourers are a very natural division of the classes of people found in virtually every society. But due to abuse, discord and disharmony crept into the caste system of India. Maybe with education, more and more people will eventually understand the real meaning of the caste system and the abuses, discord and harmony will be avoided.