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1. What is the nature of world ?

According to Sri Madhvacharya Sri Narayana is the supreme. He is full of all divine attributes and free from defects. The world consisting of prakrti (Nature), sentients and insentients is absolutely different from God. It is real and dependent on Him forever. All the functions of the world take place under his aegis. He is ever independent. The personalities of all Demigods and Jivas right from godess Lakshmi are mutually and essentially different. There is also gradation among them. The essential difference in their nature continues even after liberation.



2. Why has God created this world ?

According to this system God has created the world to enable jivas to achive the manifestation of their innate nature and to facilitate the self-evolution of worthy ones. The world creation is a benevolent and pleasurable act of God. The God has under taken the world creation only on account of his benevolence for jivas and with the sole purpose that jivas should secure release from the endless bondage and to facilitate jivas to practice the prescribed course of emancipation and thereby achieve self evolution and God-realisation.



3. How to achieve self evolution and God-realisation ?

The world created by God is not illusionary, but real. Therefore in thisreal world we must do our duty on the foundation of devotion to God; develop virtues such as truth, sympathy, sacrifice, philanthrophy, non-violence, honesty etc which sustain humanity and world; do the prescribed duties and social service as a service to God without expecting any reward; ascending gradually to higher levels; attain purity of mind; make devotion to God more and more firm by means of hearing, contemplation and meditation; achieve the realisation of God dwelling within us and finally attain the divine self bliss by grace of God.


Concentration of mind on God is the essential requirement for the practice of meditation. And this concentration requires extreme affection and continuous love for him. It is the experiance of one and all in the world that one can think of an object with concentration only when he loves it. Our love and affection to God should be solid to make our mind continuously flow towards Him. The devotion which is love and affection in God gradually grows stronger and stronger in proportion to the seeker's contemplation of His virtues. Ultimately he will become fit to meditate upon Him continuously.



4. What is the nature of Jiavas or Soul ?

Jivas are not created by God. Jivas are beginningless and yet subjected to a sort of creation. Their personality and nature are beginningless even as they are and therefore are inseparable from them. Jiva and his personality are as much inseperable as light and its effulgence. Personality and nature of Jivas are of different types and they differ from one jiva to other. They alone are the guiding factors of mundane life of Jivas. Jivas experiance vicissitude of various degrees in accordance eith their mutually different and innate personalities. God stimulates the essential nature of jivas and gives energy and inspiration to various tendencies that are consitent with their innate nature. But He is neutral in respect of this essential difference.



5. What is the place of God in the functioning of the World if Jivas are indipendent ?

Though the nature and strength of Jivas are inbuilt, any activity on the foundation of these two requires the investment of God's energy and stimulation. They remain mute in His absence. Therefore though God is not respensable for the diversity in creation, He is indispensible for the world activity.



6. What are the five fold differences ?

According to the Madhva school of thought the supreme Lord Vishnu, Jivas who are his servents and worshippers and the world which is a field of spiritual accomplishment are real and therefore it is necessary to understand them in their distinction. When we analyse them five fold differences can be discerned. They are:


1. Difference between God and Jivas.


2. Difference between God and insentients.


3. Difference between Jivas and insentients.


4. Mutaual difference among Jivas.


5. Mutaual difference among insentients.


These are known as Panchabhedas. A correct knowledge of the world is possible only when there is knowledge of these differences. The knowledge of these differences enable us to understand God, Jivas and insetients distinctively and in turn we will be able to understand the world correctly. Moreover Jivas have imposed upon themselves many attributes of insentient mind and body. They have also imposed upon themselves many attributes of God like independence. Consequently they seem to identify themsleves both with the supreme God and the insetients. As a result they are on the wrong path. With the knowledge of five fold differences they can clearly distinguish themselves from the insentient mind and body and also from God. Then they can clearly know there place in the world, the relation between themselves and God and also between themselves and insentient entities.This knowledge will inspire them to follow the right course of action.



7. What do you mean by liberation of Soul or Jiva ?

Jiva is different from mind. But he has mistaken passion, hatred, happiness and sorrow which are the modifications and attributes of mind to be his own. Being attached to things that are not actually his, he has been subjected to mundane sorrows and perversions.


By realisation of God, Jiva will get the experiance of his real form and his false knowledge will be dispelled. As a result he will be released from sorrow and calamity. The worthy Jiva, who has forgotten the essential bliss of his own on account of an attachment to what is not his, will be, by the realisation of God, released from his false form and will attain his own real form - the beautiful personality of knowledge, bliss and individuality.


Dedicated to Lord Sri Krishna

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Thanks, I was wondering what exactly is dvitam philosophy.


But I do have a question :

You say:

"The devotion which is love and affection in God gradually grows stronger and stronger in proportion to the seeker's contemplation of His virtues. Ultimately he will become fit to meditate upon Him continuously."


But then again you stress the importance of service to society, but then again you say that God is different from society and completely independent of it.


So, how do you serve the entity "Krishna" who is completely different and independent of this world , through service in this world example: community service etc.



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"Jivas are not created by God. "

really? dvaitya says jivas were not created by God? To me it seems like a very huge difference between dwaitya and all other vedic philosophies


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Bhagavad-gita 2.12 with commentary by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami:<blockquote><center><font color=red>na tv evAhaM jAtu nAsaM

na tvaM neme janAdhipAH

na caiva na bhaviSyAmaH

sarve vayam ataH param


na--never; tu--but; eva--certainly; aham--I; jAtu--at any time; na--did not; Asam--exist; na--not; tvam--you; na--not; ime--all these; jana-adhipAH--kings; na--never; ca--also; eva--certainly; na--not; bhaviSyAmaH--shall exist; sarve vayam--all of us; ataH param--hereafter.


Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.



In the Vedas, in the KaTha UpaniSad as well as in the SvetAzvatara UpaniSad, it is said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the maintainer of innumerable living entities, in terms of their different situations according to individual work and reaction of work. That Supreme Personality of Godhead is also, by His plenary portions, alive in the heart of every living entity. Only saintly persons who can see, within and without, the same Supreme Lord can actually attain to perfect and eternal peace.

<center><font color=red>

nityo nityAnAM cetanaz cetanAnAm

eko bahUnAM yo vidadhAti kAmAn

tam Atma-sthaM ye 'nupazyanti dhIrAs

teSAM zAntiH zAzvatI netareSAm


The same Vedic truth given to Arjuna is given to all persons in the world who pose themselves as very learned but factually have but a poor fund of knowledge. The Lord says clearly that He Himself, Arjuna and all the kings who are assembled on the battlefield are eternally individual beings and that the Lord is eternally the maintainer of the individual living entities both in their conditioned and in their liberated situations. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the supreme individual person, and Arjuna, the Lord's eternal associate, and all the kings assembled there are individual eternal persons. It is not that they did not exist as individuals in the past, and it is not that they will not remain eternal persons. Their individuality existed in the past, and their individuality will continue in the future without interruption. Therefore, there is no cause for lamentation for anyone.


The MAyAvAdI theory that after liberation the individual soul, separated by the covering of mAyA, or illusion, will merge into the impersonal Brahman and lose its individual existence is not supported herein by Lord KRSNa, the supreme authority. Nor is the theory that we only think of individuality in the conditioned state supported herein.


KRSNa clearly says herein that in the future also the individuality of the Lord and others, as it is confirmed in the UpaniSads, will continue eternally. This statement of KRSNa's is authoritative because KRSNa cannot be subject to illusion. If individuality were not a fact, then KRSNa would not have stressed it so much--even for the future. The MAyAvAdI may argue that the individuality spoken of by KRSNa is not spiritual, but material. Even accepting the argument that the individuality is material, then how can one distinguish KRSNa's individuality? KRSNa affirms His individuality in the past and confirms His individuality in the future also. He has confirmed His individuality in many ways, and impersonal Brahman has been declared to be subordinate to Him. KRSNa has maintained spiritual individuality all along; if He is accepted as an ordinary conditioned soul in individual consciousness, then His Bhagavad-gItA has no value as authoritative scripture. A common man with all the four defects of human frailty is unable to teach that which is worth hearing. The GItA is above such literature. No mundane book compares with the Bhagavad-gItA. When one accepts KRSNa as an ordinary man, the GItA loses all importance.


The MAyAvAdI argues that the plurality mentioned in this verse is conventional and that it refers to the body. But previous to this verse such a bodily conception is already condemned. After condemning the bodily conception of the living entities, how was it possible for KRSNa to place a conventional proposition on the body again? Therefore, individuality is maintained on spiritual grounds and is thus confirmed by great AcAryas like SrI RAmAnuja and others. It is clearly mentioned in many places in the GItA that this spiritual individuality is understood by those who are devotees of the Lord.


Those who are envious of KRSNa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead have no bona fide access to the great literature. The nondevotee's approach to the teachings of the GItA is something like that of a bee licking on a bottle of honey. One cannot have a taste of honey unless one opens the bottle. Similarly, the mysticism of the Bhagavad-gItA can be understood only by devotees, and no one else can taste it, as it is stated in the Fourth Chapter of the book. Nor can the GItA be touched by persons who envy the very existence of the Lord. Therefore, the MAyAvAdI explanation of the GItA is a most misleading presentation of the whole truth. Lord Caitanya has forbidden us to read commentations made by the MAyAvAdIs and warns that one who takes to such an understanding of the MAyAvAdI philosophy loses all power to understand the real mystery of the GItA. If individuality refers to the empirical universe, then there is no need of teaching by the Lord. The plurality of the individual soul and of the Lord is an eternal fact, and it is confirmed by the Vedas as above mentioned.</blockquote>


Bhagavad-gita 2.20 with commentary by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami:<blockquote><center><font color=red>na jAyate mriyate vA kadAcin

nAyaM bhUtvA bhavitA vA na bhUyaH

ajo nityaH zAzvato 'yaM purANo

na hanyate hanyamAne zarIre


na--never; jAyate--takes birth; mriyate--dies; vA--either; kadAcit--at any time (past, present or future); na--never; ayam--this; bhUtvA--having come into being; bhavitA--will come to be; vA--or; na--not; bhUyaH--or is again coming to be; ajaH--unborn; nityaH--eternal; zAzvataH--permanent; ayam--this; purANaH--the oldest; na--never; hanyate--is killed; hanyamAne--being killed; zarIre--the body.


For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.



Qualitatively, the small atomic fragmental part of the Supreme Spirit is one with the Supreme. He undergoes no changes like the body. Sometimes the soul is called the steady, or kUTa-stha. The body is subject to six kinds of transformations. It takes its birth from the womb of the mother's body, remains for some time, grows, produces some effects, gradually dwindles, and at last vanishes into oblivion. The soul, however, does not go through such changes. The soul is not born, but, because he takes on a material body, the body takes its birth. The soul does not take birth there, and the soul does not die. Anything which has birth also has death. And because the soul has no birth, he therefore has no past, present or future. He is eternal, ever-existing, and primeval--that is, there is no trace in history of his coming into being. Under the impression of the body, we seek the history of birth, etc., of the soul. The soul does not at any time become old, as the body does. The so-called old man, therefore, feels himself to be in the same spirit as in his childhood or youth. The changes of the body do not affect the soul. The soul does not deteriorate like a tree, nor anything material. The soul has no by-product either. The by-products of the body, namely children, are also different individual souls; and, owing to the body, they appear as children of a particular man. The body develops because of the soul's presence, but the soul has neither offshoots nor change. Therefore, the soul is free from the six changes of the body.


In the KaTha UpaniSad (1.2.18) we also find a similar passage, which reads:

<center><font color=red>

na jAyate mriyate vA vipazcin

nAyaM kutazcin na babhUva kazcit

ajo nityaH zAzvato 'yaM purANo

na hanyate hanyamAne zarIre

[bg. 2.20]


The meaning and purport of this verse is the same as in the Bhagavad-gItA, but here in this verse there is one special word, vipazcit, which means learned or with knowledge.


The soul is full of knowledge, or full always with consciousness. Therefore, consciousness is the symptom of the soul. Even if one does not find the soul within the heart, where he is situated, one can still understand the presence of the soul simply by the presence of consciousness. Sometimes we do not find the sun in the sky owing to clouds, or for some other reason, but the light of the sun is always there, and we are convinced that it is therefore daytime. As soon as there is a little light in the sky early in the morning, we can understand that the sun is in the sky. Similarly, since there is some consciousness in all bodies--whether man or animal--we can understand the presence of the soul. This consciousness of the soul is, however, different from the consciousness of the Supreme because the supreme consciousness is all-knowledge--past, present and future. The consciousness of the individual soul is prone to be forgetful. When he is forgetful of his real nature, he obtains education and enlightenment from the superior lessons of KRSNa. But KRSNa is not like the forgetful soul. If so, KRSNa's teachings of Bhagavad-gItA would be useless.


There are two kinds of souls--namely the minute particle soul (aNu-AtmA) and the Supersoul (vibhu-AtmA). This is also confirmed in the KaTha UpaniSad (1.2.20) in this way:

<center><font color=red>

aNor aNIyAn mahato mahIyAn

AtmAsya jantor nihito guhAyAm

tam akratuH pazyati vIta-zoko

dhAtuH prasAdAn mahimAnam AtmanaH


"Both the Supersoul [ParamAtmA] and the atomic soul [jIvAtmA] are situated on the same tree of the body within the same heart of the living being, and only one who has become free from all material desires as well as lamentations can, by the grace of the Supreme, understand the glories of the soul." KRSNa is the fountainhead of the Supersoul also, as it will be disclosed in the following chapters, and Arjuna is the atomic soul, forgetful of his real nature; therefore he requires to be enlightened by KRSNa, or by His bona fide representative (the spiritual master).


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