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Bal Patil

Constitutional Minority Recognition for Jain community in India

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I am not sure if it answers the questions I raised in the previous mail. unless, of course, it wa implicit in our mails that at least you have grown to a very high level of spiritual plane from where you can feel that love for me. The way it is described feels more of a theoretical answer rather than a personal experince jotted down. I apologize for writing all this but I only want us all to find the truth amidst the cobwebs of confusion layered in our personalities.

Also, when you say yoga - do you mean the yogic exercises as done in yoga - astanga yoga, hatha yoga, etc or are you talking of yoga from the prespective of a karmayogi. Mahavira, Rama or anyonel else for that matter did not practise yoga to attain Nirvana. It was an entirely different kind of yoga - the spiritual kind. The yogic exercises can only help us clear up our physical existence upto certain level. But I simply disagree to believe that it grows someone spiritually. Someone has been misguiding a lot of people, I feel.

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The yogic exercises can only help us clear up our physical existence upto certain level. But I simply disagree to believe that it grows someone spiritually. Someone has been misguiding a lot of people, I feel.


Why do you think that yogic exercises can not grow someone spiritually? I agree that just because someone does yoga does not mean that he has grown spiritually. But I will not dispute the claim that these exercises can help someone grow spiritually. Yogic exercises do not constitute the end but they are the means to end. I agree that there may have been people who were very advanced spiritually but did not use to do yogic exercises. This mean that doing yogic exercises is not the only way to advance spiritually. But, it can well be one of the ways.

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Yogic exercises are meant for the somatic-self. It helps to control the somatic existence of the man - when I say control it means helps concentrate the energies in it in the right manner. Of course, it is a means in a fashion because one cannot build a palace over bad foundations and proper somatic growth is necessary to have true spiritual freedom. I just find it very hard to believe that there is a single soul on Earth that has nothin but love in his heart for the people irrespective of their stance in life, their inclination or their approach towards others. I have not seen a single person who has been able to gain control over his anger - meaning even uses anger when it is required (Remember Krishna also got angry when it was required. We get angry for our own subtle motives and not for upholding dharma). And so if there is not a single soul who has been able to use yogic methods to come out of this how can this be really helpful at further stages of spiritual enlightenment?

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Two things. I saw a program once about a huge deity that Jains bathe. I'm guessing it is Mahavira. It is a gigantic stone statue (I'm terrible with heights, but I'm guessing 100ft) that is completely naked. What is the name of the deity? And any particular historical details (like when was it first installed, etc...).


Second, that is one interesting story Pita Prabhu. You and Atma should get together and compile these. She has told some scary ones before (like a devotee getting paralyzed after spraying Tulasi with a chemical, and a ex-devotee being stabbed and managing to crawl his way back to a temple to die amidst sankirtan and devotees).



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Arjuna inquired:Which are considered to be most perfect,those who are always property engaged in Your devotional service

or those who worship the impersonal Brahman,the unmanifested?


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:


Those who fix thier minds on My personal form and are always engaged in worshipping Me with great and tansendental faith are considered by Me to be most prefect.


But those who fully worship the unmanifested,that which lies beyound the senses,the all prevailing,inconceiable,unchanging,fixed and immovable-by controlling the various senses and being equally disposed to everyone,such persons engaged in the welfare of all ,at last achieve Me


For those whose minds are attached to the unmanifested,impersonal feature of the Supreme,advancement is very troublesome.

To make progress in that discipline is always difficult for those who are embodied.


But those who worship Me,giving up all thier activities unto Me and being devoted to Me without deviation,engaged in devotional service and always meditating uponMe,haveing fixed thier minds upon Me,O son of Partha-for them Iam the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death.


Just fix you mind upon Me,the Supreme Personality of Godhead and engage all your intelligence in Me.Thus you will live in Me always ,without a doubt.


My dear Arjuna ,O winner of wealth,if you can not fix your mind upon Me without deviation,then follow the regulative principals of Bhakti Yoga.In this way develop a desire to attain Me.


Dear Love

this is the yoga which we are refering Bhakti yoga means to yoke and in this reference in means to yoke with the Origial

Cause of all Causes.

Because you have not seen anyone who has perfected yoga perefectly in the above mentioned way does not mean that there are not such persons .

I have seen and heard from afew ,seeing how they loved all because they Loved Krishna I can understand what is this love and compassion

We do love you just because you are His dormantly sleeping servant and His part and parcel.

If one looks at the digit zero 0 the vaule

is also zero.zero + zero = what? something other than zero ?

So how to squeese Love out of zero?

Once 1 is placed before zero there is vaule

it is now 10 and then another zero and 100

another and another and the vaule inceases eternally.


That one is Krishna ,place Him next this zero and recive the full benifit of cultivating renouciations but place zero and it is just toublesome effort with still zero as the sum total.


A true story for you and our readers.

I had a godbrother of whoes name I will not place here.

He was a very hard worker while I new him within ashram life.

Always he was very simple and cooked for the



He was senior the me, my older godbrother he also served very long and hard in Shree Dham Mayapur a very sacred place of Shree Chaitanya Mahaprabhu apperence .

One day he seeing a superoir of the temple acting unjustly he lefted the ashram and walked, hicthed whatever from West Bengal accross Bangaldesh and ended up in Thailand.


In Thailand he entered a Buddhist Temple and as he told me he followed thier mediatition which he said was easy for him.


His named given by our Guru Maharaja also appears within the pastimes of Lord Buddha

and he told me our Guru Maharaja knew then that he was really a Buddhist thus giving him that name.???


In that temple he began eating non vegetarian food and after some time met one lady within the temple and left Thailand.


They then came to Taiwan where I was living

When I met him he had made and altar to the chinese God Gaung Gong and was giving some water


and non veg food (a bun stuffed withmeat)which he offered my friend whom I was cultivating in spitiual practises.

As my friend bit into the bun he said this is meat!


As I knew him as my superior and senoir godbrother I did not crictise him even he was saying very nonseneical things in ference to our Guru Maharaja.And offering us non veg food.


I just told him that I was happy to see he was worshipping Gaung Gong as this idol in China is worshiped because he was very faithful to his master.


Latter on I heard that he had put on Buddhist monks robes and had become a bit famous in Taiwan because he had vowed to make prostration around the whole island.

At least 300 miles around.


This took him much more than a year which he almost completed .


He made his prostrations along the road side and was hit by a truck and killed with only about a week time left.


I still love him but his position is unknown




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That statue is in Sravan Belagol in South India (I think further from Bangalore). It is the statue of Bahubali, the younger of the two princes who fought for the throne to a kingdom when their father passed away. As it happened, Bahubaliji was much stronger than the his elder brother and they had a tought fight. They had decided to fight various forms of warfare to decide who will get the throne. Eventually, the decider came on MallYudh ( hand-to-hand combat) and Bahubaliji being much stronger than his elder brother was managing to find the winning ways easiyl. At one point of time he picked up his brother and was about to throw him on the ground when he realised the uselessness of all the fight for worldly things and so, he sat his brother on his shoulders instead. He thought he was doing adharma by riducling his elder brother. So, the elder brother was declared the king. But Bahubaliji felt such remorse that he wished to die. He felt he was a load on this motehr earth. So, he lifted himself up on one single toe and stood their for 12 years. But freedom would not come to him. THen at one brilliant moment he realised that it was his ahamkar (ego) that was making him do all this and as soon as he realised this and got a re-birth from his ego, he attained enlightenment. It is his statue as it is form the story where in those 12 years actually some creeper plants had used his body to climb up and that is what is portrayed in the statue. The bathing in the milk ceremony, I think is called MahaAbhishek.

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Acarya Kundakundacarya

by Chandraprakash Shah UK


There are two principal sects of Jainism. One is Swetambera and other one is Digambara. Both the sects equally believe in Arya Bhadrabahuswami. They also claim Umaswati as their own disciple. His Tattvarthasutra equally share with same pride. The present Digamabara monks consider themselves from the lineage of Kundakundacarya. He enjoys highest position as the most honourable monk after Bhagwan Mahavir and Gautamswami in Digamabara sect.


Before proceeding further in the titled essay, let us understand about the formation of Digambara sect. After Bhagwan Mahavir attained emancipation, which could be 467 B.C. acarya Bhadrabahu returned as a head to the spiritual dynasty of Mahavir. His number was eight in the lineage after his brother Acarya Sambhutivijay left for his heavenly abode. His time therefore may be considered as 167 A.D. after Mahavir.


During this period, Candragupta Maurya was the king of Magadh. There was 12 years severe drought in his time. Hence, it was presumed at that time by Acarya Bhadrbahu that it would be difficult to maintain the livelihood of large congregation of Monks and Nuns. He therefore decided to move with his disciples towards Karnatak, southern part of India and established his base over there. This resulted in the promotion of Jainism in South India and according to one theory, for the bifurcation of Jain Community in to Swetamber and Digambara sects. Arya Sthulibhadra who remained in the North, became the head of the congregation there. Until then there was no difference between Jain Community. Nevertheless, during the period of over twelve years, created differences among the monks who went to south and who remained in the North in the rites and rituals of Jainism.


The basic difference was that of to wear cloths or not. The monks who remained in North started wearing clothes due to adverse climate and those who went to south maintained their nakedness. However, it is not clear that this difference was prevailing before drought hit the North. It is unclear from the history of Jainism that either Gautamswami or Sudharmaswami were wearing clothes or not. No mention is available. According to Mahopadhyaya Yashovijayji M.S. as long as clothes are used to save monk hood and protects Sayam, they are not the causes of attachment (See Adhyatmamat Pariksha).


Under the leadership of Arya Sthulbhadra those who remained in the North, gathered in the Patliputra and started collecting information about Agamic and canonical literatures. This was disagreed and disapproved by those who had migrated to south, based on the fact that due to severe drought of twelve years all these literatures had been lost. North continued with their collection but south remained without literatures. This seems to be quite awkward as Arya Bhadrbahuswami was there all the time to provide guidance on rites and rituals. There was gap of Agamic and canonical literature in the south.



It was believed that Arya Kundakundacarya provided authentic Agamic and canonical literatures for the first time in the south. Who was this Kundakundacarya? There are two mythical stories available about him. Although these two stories are written quite some time after, he had left for heaven; no authentic evidence is available that that real Kundakundacarya was. Who ever he might be but he had given thought provocating, wonderful and marvelous Jain Literatures on its philosophy, Dravyanuyog, Metaphysics etc.


Prof. Cakravarti in the preface of volume “Pancastikay” give narration of one mythical story. There lived a rich merchant named Karmunda in the city of Kurumarai in the district of Pitthanadu in the southern part of India. There was shepherd boy living along with him. He was looking after merchant’s cattle. One day he went to the forest to graze the cattle. He was that the forest has been burnt but in the middle of the forest, some green trees were standing on the land. While inquiring he learnt that there was a hermitage of a monk. He found a bag full of books in that hermitage. He took with him that bag and worshipped everyday those books.


One day a monk came to his master’s place for alms. His master gave him alms. He made charity of those books to monk. Monk blessed both and went away. Later on that shepherd died and reborn as a son to his previous master’s wife. As he grew up he turned out to be the great “Kundakundacarya.”


Pandit “Premi” describes another story from the Gyanprabodh volume (See Jain Hiteishi, book 10, page 369) for Araya Kundakunda. There was king named Kumudcandra in Birpur town of Malwa district. There lived a merchant named Kund with his wife Kundlata. They had a son named Kundkund. Once upon a time Acarya named Jincandra arrived there and gave discourses. Kundkund who was 11 years old at that time went to listen the discourses and so much impressed with it that he started living with that monk as his disciple. He was brilliant in study and turned out to be different from other disciples within short period. He was designated as acarya at the age of 33. He had progressed like anything in the field of meditation and concentration that once he had some doubts in his mind, he deeply thought about Bhagwan Simandharswami, who is in Mahavidehkshetra. There was great telepathy between both of them at that time. Simandharswami, though was in the “Sabha” (Assembly), Bhagwan said in between ‘Saddharmavruddhirastu.’ The audience in the assembly did not understand the utterance of Bhagwan. Then Simandharswami clarified the whole situation. There were two Caranmunis in that assembly and they were friends of Kundakundacarya in his earlier birth. They came to Bharatkshetra and took away Kundakundacarya to Mahavidehkshetra. Kundakundacarya stayed there for 7 days. He obtained solutions of all his doubts and returned to Bharatkshetra. Seven hundred men and women embraced initiation because of his preaching. Later on, he had critical dialogue and debate on mount Girnar with Swetambara. He compelled and confessed through Brahmi goddess that ideology of Digamabara sect is the correct one.





Arya Devsen, mentioned in his commentary of “Darshansar” in the year V.S. 990 for the first time that Arya Kundakunda went to Mahavidehkshetra. Jaysen in his critical commentary on “Pancastikay” mentions that Kundkunda went to Mahavidehkshetra on his own and obtained scriptural knowledge from Simandharswami. Inscriptions on the stone of Shravanbelgola of 12th century alsdo suggest that Kundkunda was able to walk in the air.The colossal debate with Swetamabara, which happened on the mount Girnar was mentioned in “Pandav puran” by Shubhcandragani.


Neverthless, both these mythical stories do not provide any authentic historical evidence about correctness of time, place, about Kundakundacarya. Kundakundacarya does not provide us any information about himself in his works. He just gives his name at the end of his volume “Baras Anuvekkha” (twelve contemplations). He also shows himself as the disciple of Shrut kevali Bhadrabahuswami at the end of his volume “Bodhprabrut” Monk Shrutsagar had written critical commentary in Sanskrit in the 15th century on Bodhprabrut. There are two Bhadrabahu in Digamabara “Pattavali” (lineage). The second Bhadrabahu happened to be in 62—85 A.D. He is ruled out to be the Shrut kevalin as we know and it is a tradition that first Bhadrabahu was the ShrutKevlin. We do not find any authentic reliable evidence in either Jain mythological stories or tradition that he could be the contemporary of first Bhadrbahu. Instead, all the evidences, which are available indicate that he could have been in the lineage from Bhadrabahuswami.


Kundakundacarya considers himself as disciple of Bhadrabahu. This can be possible on one account as Bhadrabahu went to southern part of India and after his death the Sangha of southern region may believe to have obtained scriptural knowledge through him and in turn, Kundakundacarya believes to have received scriptural knowledge from Bhadrabahu.

It has also beeen mentioned in one of the aphorism of “Viddvadjanbodhak” He was on this earth 243 A.D. after Mahavir. It has been also prelude that he was contemporary of Umaswati.


However, Pujyapad describes in his volume of “Sarvarthsiddhi” five aphorisms of “Baras Anuvekkha.” Shri Pujyapad had been in the fifth century, hence it may be concluded that Kundakundacarya must be before him. There is a mention of six Acarayas in the Copper inscription of “Markar” of 466 A.D. and they were in the tradition that followed Kundakundacarya.


Several names of Kundakundacarya are available. In the commentary of “Pancastikay” Arya Jaysen determines his name as “Padmanadi” there are five more names of Kundakundacarya mentioned in one of the article of Vijaynagar of 1386 A.D. They are : Padmanandi, Kundkund, Vakragiva, Elacarya and Grudhapichha. Both Vakragriva and Grudhpichha are not considered as his names. Grudhapichha name is attributed to Umaswati who created famous volume of “Tattvarthasutra”, while Vakragrivacarya is another person. Therefore, only Elacarya remains to be considered. It is accepted fact that Elacarya had written a volume named “Kurul” This volume is in Tamil language and



Elacarya was Jain monk. Some considers Elacarya and Kundakundacarya as one entity. They therefore believe that Kurul was written by Kundakundacarya. It is believed that Kurul was created in first century. (Studies in South Indian Jainism Page 40) It is possible for a intellectual person like Kundakundacarya to formulate a volume in the language of that region.


Bhadrabahu reached near by Mysore in 3rd century B.C. and Jains made their stronghold there. After two more centuries, they might have reached deep in to southern region. It is established procedure for Jains to propagate Jainism in the language of the region. There is similarity between Economics of Kautilya and Kurul in certain matters. This could be the reason that Jains who migrated from the North had put in their political principles and religious rituals, which they carried away with them.


We may therefore conclude that the great sage “Kundakundacarya” was here on this earth just at the beginning of first century of Christ.


Now we shall list the creation of Kundakundacarya.

1. 84 Pahudas. Pahudas meaning Prakaran (Chapter)

2. 10 Bhakti—Out of these only eight are available. They contain Stutuis of Tirthankaras, Siddha, Acarya, Monks and Panch Parmeshtin. They are similar to that of Swetamabara Pratikraman sutr, Avashyak sutra and Panchsutta

3. Ashta Pahuda—They are eight individual and independent poems for eight types philosophy such as Darshan, Caritra, Sutra, Gyan, Bhav, Moksha, Sheel and Linga.

4. Ratnsaar (Rayansaar)—It contains 162 slokas. There is description of conduct of Monks and laity. The language and description do not resemble with the knowledge of Kundakundacarya.

5. Baras Anuvekkha—there are 91 aphorisms. It contains description od twelve contemplations. This volume mentions the name of Kundakundacarya

6. Niyamsar—there are 187 stanzas. Padmaprabha has written commentary on it. This volume provides information in detail about Gyan, Darshan, Caritra a ratnatray

7. Nataktrayi—Pancastikay, Samaysaar and Pravacansaar are last three volumes. They are called Nartyatrayi. Samaysaar describes the elements like Jiva and Ajiva. They are the principal elements, which take part in the Samsaar and hence they termed as “Natak.” Commentator Amritcandracarya attributed this name to Samaysaar.


“Collection” is the name given to Pancastikay. In this volume, Kundakundacarya might have collected some slokasa releted to his subjects. We find repetition and some discontinuity in this volume. Commentator attribute the stanzas 64 onwards a name “Siddhantsutra” It seems that Kundakundacarya might have received




some stanzas from his predecessor and collected them in this volume.

Samaysaar is considered the best volume created of Kundakundacarya. Some orthodox persons also believe that ineligible people have no right to read this volume. As such this volume contains very enlightened benevolent discussion about some the purest forms of soul, real nature of Soul, real nature of Karma and its causes of bondage. Samaysaar contains either 415 or 439 slokas. Stanzas 117,122 and 340 are attributed to Samkhya Darshan.


The subject of Pravacansaar is containg important instructions for the person who thinks to embrace initiation. It is one kind of philosophical volume. It moves smoothly without discontinuity.

8 Vedant— There is nothing adverse in this volume, which can be unacceptable to Swetamber, Sthankvasi Brahmin or Buddhists. Instead one can determines that the volumes of Kundakundacarya more or less decrease the distance between Samkhya and Jain philosophies.

He describes in detail and with authenticity and with several arguments the relation between Soul and Karma. He firmly affirms that “Dukh”, which is the result of eight kinds of Karma is “Inanimate” He mentions that wherever the Adhyavasay etc Bhav are mentioned they are from practical point of view. While the soul is non-tasty, non-framed, non-smelly, non-touchy, non-bodily etc. It is has only quality of consciousness. He says it does not have causes of bondages such as attachment and detachment, delusion and idleness. It does not have intensity of passions, activities of Mind, Speech and Body; these are the results of inanimate matters. He believes retirement is the activity and original nature of Soul and engagement in activity is the false nature of Soul.


He empathetically clarifies that as long as the soul engages itself in passions and believes that they are its own creation due to illiteracy and lack of pure knowledge it results in to Karmic bondage. He also determines and concludes the affections of learned preceptors are only full of Gyan and affections of illiterate persons are full of illiteracy. Illiterate persons therefore have Karmic bondage but knowledgeable persons do not have karmic bondage though both are carrying out the similar activities.






He says “ as long as the soul does not possess real knowledge of elements and possesses knowledge of inanimate elements it is termed as “Agyan”(ignorance) of the soul and the soul is termed “Agyani”(ignorant) Samaysaar 126,132 etc. The stanza numbers 89, 17-2,197,321 etc gives ideas about the soul, Karma, its relations and affections

Further, he says, “If the soul is actually the doer of Karma and its results, then at no point of time the soul can be liberated.” (Samaysaar321). Kundakunda explains the meanining of two wqords, Swasamay and Parsamay absolutely from metaphysical point of view. According to him, Swasamay is one’s own modifications and Parsamay is modifications of Pudgalas. (Pravacan 1.1-2 and Samaysaar 1.2)

Practically we do not have any evidence to show that Kundakunda composed any work in Sanskrit language but he was the first Jain Acarya who had created most authoritative work in Prakrit dialect and Umaswati was the first one to compose work in Sanskrit.


From Swetambar point of view, Mahopadhyaya Yashovijayji, described in his Gyansaar, Adhyatmasaar and Adhyatmaupnishad the same thing, which Kundakunda had said about Passions and Karma as well as soul. Kundakunda advices the achiever often to walk over the principal royal path of liberation and be in deep concentration of purest form of Soul and its position.


It is very much important to establish on the mind of reader that Kundakundacarya is the one of the best preceptors and the great sage of Jain Dharma. He provided and made easy the royal path to walk for liberation in the southern part of India in those days when the Jain Dharma was only flourished in the North. Hence, there is no surprise that Digambara sect worship him like “Shrutkevalin.”


(Courtsey: Fractions from “Kundakunda na Tran Ratno” and Sanmati Tarka of Pt. Sukhlal Sanghavi and Pt. Bechardas Doshi.)




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Thiruvalluvar - A GREAT SAINT OF DRAVID JAIN CIVILIZATION- Accepted and autheticated fact vouched by Archaeology Dept of India.


Jain influence on ancient and classical Tamil culture is deep.Tamil language is outcome of Jain civilization. Tamil is evolved from Brahmi (brahmi was daughter of Thirthankar Adinath).There are 100's of rock carvings and script around Madurai would prove closeness of brahmi script to tamil script.


This fact has been vouched by State Archaeological Dept, Madurai. The director of above organization has also said "THIRUVALLUVAR" being a perfect JAIN saint with justifited research. However said director showed his inability to publish it openly due to unknown political or social reasons.


Tiruvalluvar's seminal moral scripture is revered by Tamils who were all Jains prior to intrusion of Shankaracharya around 8 millenium A.D. The Kural offers many clear indications of its author's Jain identity. Among other things, Tiruvalluvar's (1) introductory reverence for "Adinath Bhagavan" (Jain name of Lord Rishabh Nath) having specifically eight spiritual attributes (in Jainism, God, or the pure soul, has eight major attributes); (2) insistence upon complete vegetarianism and not eating even already killed/dead animals (in stark contrast to Buddhism); (3) praise for ascetics who "control the five senses"; (4) rejection of ritual sacrifices (contrary to common Hindu practices); (5) insistence upon eschewing violence even against one's enemies (in contrast to the Bhagavad Gita); and (6) other frequent allusions to Jain moral attitudes, each indicate a devoutly Jain moral thinker. However, The Kural was composed in a deftly non-sectarian fashion. Thiruvalluvar upheld universal human virtues which are also embraced and cherished by everyone in Tamil Nadu even today.


The first couplet


அகர முதல எழுத்தெல்லாம் ஆதி

பகவன் முதற்றே உலகு


Agara mudala ezhuthellam adhi

bagavan mudatrae ulagu.


All alphabets begin with letter ‘A’.

So does the world with primordial ‘God’.









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By Acharya Shri Vijayabhuvanbhanu Soorishwarji


The Evidence Regarding the Ancient Origin of JainismJainism has been in existence from times immemorial and it is older than many religions of the world. This point is evident from the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Puranas, and the opinions expressed by Indian and foreign scholars. In his preface to "Jain Dharm Ane Teni Prachinata" (in Gujarati) Pandit Ambalal writes, "Buddhism emerged only two thousand five hundred years ago. Buddha expirenced the impact of the Jain doctrines. This is more than evident. Not only this; it is also evident that Bhagwan Buddha gave currency to his famous Middle-path only after being fed up with the apogee of the wisdom that had been expounded in Jain doctrines and theories; and that Middle-path became disseminated under the name of Buddhism. This is an indisputable historical truth".


The language and meaning of the Vedagranthas which constitute the Prime source of Hinduism, remain recondite and abstruse even to this day. Through the centuries several commentators have written commentaries on the Vedas in consonance with their respective philosophical outlooks, but some of the names that appear in the Vedas are suggestive of the names of the Jain Tirthankars. The same tradition is clearly discerni- ble even in the grantha, Shrimad Bhagavata. The author of Shrimad Bhagavata has tried to narrate clearly the story of Bhagwan Rishabhdev. He has been given a place in the twenty four Avataras (incarnations of God! of Hinduism. All these facts naturally point to the conclusion that the Jain Dharma as a rich tradition has been in existence from times immemorial. The twelve great "Ganadhars (Erudite disciples) of Bhagwan Mahavir and most of the great Acharyas that emerged later were brahmins who had attained an absolute mastery over the Vedic Shastras. Because those scholars found Diksha and became initiated into the "Charitradharma". This ought to strengthen anyone's faith in Jain Dharma.


The Jain Dharma has been in existence from times immemorial; and so, a collection of the opinions of the Western and the Oriental scholars has been given here. These opinions have been given not by ordinary scholars but by mighty scholars who made a comparative study of all the philosophies of the world and came to those conclusions.

Panyas Shri Sushilvijayji (at present, Acharyashri Sushil- sooriji) in his book "Jain Dharm Ane Teni Prachinata" says.

"There are many great religions in this world. The place of Jain Dharma among them is unique. It has been in existence from times immemorial".


Some Dharmas in this world bear the names of individuals or individual Gods and are famous by those names. The Buddha Dharma is named after the Buddha. The Shaivism is named after, Lord Shiva. The Vaishnavadharma is named after Lord Vishnu. In the same manner, many other Dharmas in this world are named after individual prophets or Gods; and are famous by those names. But the Jain Dharma is not named after any individual exponent or prophet. It is not named as Rishabh Dharma after Rishabhdev; or Parshwa Dharma after Parshwanath; or Mahavir Dharma after Mahavir. Actually, the _____expression Jain Dharma signifies certain lofty virtues. "Anyone who has attained an absolute victory over the inner enemies such as attachments and hatred is called a Jin". The Dharma that has been expounded by the Jins is called Jainism; and those who follow the Jin Dharma are called Jains.


Arhat darshan, Syadvad darshan, Anekant darshan. Vitrag darshan, Jain darshan, Jain Shasan, Jain Dharma are the other names of Jainism. The uniqueness and the excellence of the Jain dharma are well known throughout the world. Just as all things are absorbed by the ocean, the Jain dharma has absorbed all the other Dharmas and philosophies. If each of the others take one particular Naya as the basis of its philosophy, the Jain Dharma takes the seven Nayas as the basis of its philosophy; and so it comprehends all the Nayas. The great master of Nyaya (the science of logic) the Nyayacharya, Shrimad Yashovijayji says in his work, Adyatmasar "The Bauddha Dharma is based on the Rijusutra Naya (The Naya that treats the object as the modification of the transient present); the Vedantic philosophy is based on the Sangrahanaya (The Naya that seeks unity in diversity). The case of the Sankhya philosophy also is the same. The Naiyayik and the Vaisheshik philosophies are based on Naigam Naya(the Naya that seeks to synthesise the gene-rality and the particularity of an obiect) ".

The Mimamsa philosophy originates from the Shabhanaya. (This Naya seeks to determine the exact meaning of the word in its context). The Jain Dharma comprises all the Nayas. (Naya means a way of comprehending an object). It comprises such doctrines as the subtle and intricate philosophy of karma; the subtler interpretative exposition; and the beautiful conception of the Navtatva (the nine principles); the incomparable exposition of the four Anuyogas or inquiries; the delightful description of the four Nikshepas (dialectical processes of understanding the nature of things). The seven types of Naya; the speciality of the Syadvad and the Anekantvad, the excellent theory of Non-violence; the sublime nature of Tapas (spiritual austerity); the endeavours relating to Yoga and the undertaking and observance of ordinary vows and extraordinary vows. In this respect, the Jain Dharma is great. Not only this; thousands of scientists and philosophers spending crores of billions, causing violence to the six kinds of jivas could not realize their objective of discovering the truth even with the help of countless sophisticated machines and equipments.-Inspite of all this, a lot of research has gone on and the result is the acceptance of the soundness of the atomic theory of the Jain philosophy. It is for this reason that the greatest scientists-and philosophers have praised the Jain philosophy without any reservation. The Jain Dharma is complete and comprehensive in all respects. If there are ways by which the nations of the world that are heading towards disastrous wars, can be brought back to the path of peace and prosperity one is found in the Jain doctrine. Many western scholars and others have written books and published articles in newspapers and magazines expressing the view that the Jain Dharma is a branch or development of some other religion; but now scholars and thinkers are free from this false notion; yet the history text books used in schools and colleges continue to encourage that false notion; but it is definitely not acceptable and has to be discarded. The truth has to be stated.


Evidence in support of the theory that Jain Dharma is an ancient religion: The Jain Dharma existed even before the emergence of the Vedas and the Puranas which are said to be ancient.




These Statements are mentioned in Hindu purans about Jineshwar /Tirthankars / Jina / Arhan / Arihant--- terms used for Jain 24 gods , Hope you all enjoy this truth . God bless you all.


"I am not Rama. I have no desire for material things. Like Jina I want to establish peace within myself."

- Yoga Vasishta, Chapter 15, Sloka 8 the saying of Rama

"O Arhan! You are equipped with the arrow of Vastuswarpa, the law of teaching, and the ornaments of the four infinite qualities. O Arhan! You have attained omniscient knowledge in which the universe is reflected. O Arhan! You are the protector of all the Souls (Jivas) in the world. O Arhan! The destroyer of kama (lust)! There is no strong person equal to you."

- Yajur Veda, Chapter 19, Mantra 14

Sanskrit verse from Shivpuran Lord Rishabhdev Jineshwar the omniscient and the all- pervasive incarnated himself on the magnificent Kailas (Ashtapad Mountain).


Sanskrit verse from Brahmandpuran Nabhiraja and Marudevi gave birth to a son named Rishabhdev, the greatest of Kshatriyas and the first ancestor of all Kshatriyas. Mahadev Rishabhdev was born to Nabhiraja and Marudevi, in the Ikshvaku dynasty; assumed the ten kinds of Dharma; and after attaining Kevaljnan (the supreme knowledge) disseminated it.


Sanskrit verse from Prabhaspuran Lord Neminath abides on Raivatadri (Girnar) and Lord Adinath abides on Vimalachal (Shatrunjay- Siddhagiri). These mountains enable people to pursue the path of Moksha since the ashrams of great Rishis (sages) were located there.


Sanskrit verse from Skandpuran Man will not have punarvajanma (he will be free from the cycle of birth and death ) if he touches Shatrunjay Tirth; if he bows to Girnar; and if he bathes in Gajapandkund. All meditate upon Maharishi(sage) Rishabhdev , who has an ideal form ; who inspires enthusiasm in men; who is a pure soul having attained kevaljnyan(supreme knowledge); who is spotless and formless.


Sanskrit Verse from Nagpuran The fruit that can be attained by visiting the sixty eight holy places, can be attained by meditating on Lord Adinath. (Lord Adinath is the other name of Rishabhdev)


Sanskrit Verse from Nagpuran The word Arhan begins with (a) and ends with (ha).

Above and below it has has the crescent moon shaped curves with Nadbindhus (dots or drops of sound). Oh Goddess!

This word signifies the supreme truth. Those who realise this truth cut off the bondage of the sansar and attain moksha (salvation).


Sanskrit verse from Agnipuran Rishabh was born to Marudevi. Bharat was born to Rishabh.

Bharat (India arose from Bharat and Sumati arose from Bharat.


Sanskrit verse from Rigveda The Arihant is the foremost in carrying out the noble action of rendering benevolence to others and he is absolutely heroic. In the same manner, make sacrificial offerings to the worthy Gods.


Sanskrit verse from Manusmriti Marudevi was the sixth founder of lineage and Nabhi was the seventh. Rishabh who possessed wide feet was born to Marudevi and Nabhi, the eighth fouder of lineage. He was a guide to heroic men. He was venerated by Gods and demons. He expounded and taught the three great ethics. He became the Jin in the beginning of the yuga (millennium).


Full details of first jain god Rishabh dev and Bharat chakravarti after whom india got its name bharat are available in Adipuran and Mahapuran of Jinsenacharya and Shrimad-Bhagavat.

“Rshabha dates back to a pre-historic period. Legend associates his name with the Ikshvaku dynasty of Ayodhya as its primordial ancestor.

As a ruler, Rshabha encapsulated his vision of civil society in three rhyming words: asi (sword or civil defense); masi (ink, representing writing or language and script) and krishi (agriculture, animal husbandry or the means to settled social life). To these he added commerce (vanijya), the arts (kala) and architecture (shilpa). He established the institution of marriage as well as villages, government, laws and penology. He taught 72 art forms and imparted the knowledge of scripts and numerals. In a sense, that was the beginning of human civilization. As noted by Pandit Sukhlal Sanghvi, during an excavation in 1949 in Cyprus a bronze statue of Rsabhdev was found from around the second millennium, cca.1250 BC. Recent marine archeology in the Bay of Cambay threw up underwater discoveries of submerged civilisations that existed before almost all other known ancient civilisations. The Bhagawat Purana describes Rshabha as and incarnation of Vishnu. A seal from Mohen-jo-daro is often referred to as the seal of Rsabha

--- Shri L.M. Singhvi”.


Till date brahmins bless by name of Aristanemi means neminathji 22nd jain tirthankar.

Biography of Neminathji is available in Harivanshpuran. Aristanemi, the twenty-second Tirthankara belonged to the Andhak-Vrisni clan of the Yadavas. He was a younger cousin of Lord Krishna. His father, Samudravijiya and Lord Krishna's father Vasudeva were brothers.

“Rishabhnath, in the Vedic literature, especially the Rig Ved, can be accepted as the same founder of both the Brahaman and the Sraman religions. He is recognized as the point of integration between them. Apart from Shri Rishabhdev there are references of other Jain Tirthankars in Vedic literature. Mr. B. R. Kundu has confirmed it in the case of Tirthankar Sumatinath "We also learn from the Bhagwat Purana that the Tirthankar Sumati followed the path of Rsabha.”(J.J. 1981 Pg. 67).

In order to understand the original source of Indian culture, apart from Veda and other ancient sources, we can certainly draw fountainhead of knowledge from the remains of Mohan-Jodaro and Harrappa. Both these relics establish the presence of Sramanic culture overflowing the ancient civilization.

Mohan-Jodaro and Harrappa represent the culture of pre Vedic era. The seals containing the icon of bull (Brishav) and of meditating yogis, clearly indicate the Sraman school of thought. Undoubtedly the Sramanic culture existed in India, not only prior to the composition of Rig Veda, but was the foremost and principal stream of cultured civilization.

Dr. Thomas Mcevilley of Rice University of Los Angeles and Dr. Katherine Harpar of Loyola Marymount University further strengthen the suggestion that “there existed Pre Aryan Jain tradition in the Indus Valley.”

According to Prof. A. Chakraborti- "The religion of Ahimsa or no violence was the basic principle of Pre Aryan civilization in India is known to the scholars, who carefully studied the Indus Valley as revealed by the excavations of Mohan-Jodaro and Harappa. Thus to the great surprise of the experts, they found no weapons for the purpose of offence and defence. From the absence of destructive implements, the experts have come to the conclusion that the people of the Indus Valley civilization did not entrust themselves in wagging was with anybody.”

The influence on Indus valley civilization is a contribution of the Sraman culture. There is no indication of any existence of the Vedic religion. Hence the Arhat school of thought is the original main stream of civilization. "The religion of the Jinas can be traced before the advent of the vedic Aryans to the Pre historic period in India. The first of these Jinas was Rsabha whose bull insignia is found in Indus valley civilization.”

Shri T. N. Ramchandran (Joint director of Indian Archeologists) has clearly stated that “we are perhaps recognizing in Harappa statue a full fledge Jain Tirthankara in the characteristic pose of physical abandon (kayot sarga). The statue under description is therefore a splendid representative specimen of this thought of Jainism at perhaps its very inception.”---- “www.jainsamaj.org


Jainism is eyes of world wide scholars by Acharya Shri Vijayabhuvanbhanu – soorishwarji & courtesy by Pankaz chandmal hingarh






"We learn from scriptures (Sashtras) and commentaries that Jainism is existing from beginning less time.This fact is indisputable and free from difference of opinion.There is much historical evidence on this point.Meat-eating and wine-drinking in Brahminism were discarded on account of the influence of Jainism.” - Bala Gangadhar Tilak Lokamanya "I adore so greatly the principles of the Jain religion, that I would like to be reborn in a Jain community."



- George Bernard Shaw

"There is nothing wonderful in my saying that Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed. Vardhaman Tirthankar made the traditions of the F'rinciples and ideologies that had been expounded by the 23 earlier sages or Tirthankars go forward. We have a lot of evidence to establish the view that there were countless devotees and followers of Rishabhdev even before the commencement of the modern era. The Tirthankars are given prominence and honour even in the Yajurveda. The Jain Dharma has been in existence from times immemorial"



- Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Vice President, india

"Jainism has contributed to the world the sublime doctrine of Ahimsa. No other religion has emphasized the importance of Ahimsa and carried its practice to the extent that Jainism has done.Jainism deserves to become the universal religion because of its Ahimsa doctrine The modern research in history has proved that the Jain Dharma existed even before Brahminism or the Hindu Dharma."

- Justice Ranglekar, Bombay High Court

"Lofty ideas and high ascetic practices are found in Jainism.It is impossible to know the beginning of Jainism."


- Major General Forlong

"I say with conviction that the doctrine for which the name of Lord Mahaveer is glorified nowadays is the doctrine of Ahimsa. If anyone has practiced to the fullest extent and has propagated most the doctrine of Ahimsa, it was Lord Mahaveer."


- Mahatma Gandhi

"What would be the condition of the Indian Sanskrit literature if the contribution of the Jains were removed?The more I study Jain literature the more happy and wonder struck I am."


"The Jains have written great masterpieces only for the benefit of the world."

- Dr. Hertel, Germany

"Jainism is of a very high order.Its important teachings are based upon science.The more the scientific knowledge advances the more that Jain teachings will be proven."



- L. P. Tessetori, Italy



"I tell my countrymen that the principles of the Jain

Dharma and the Jain Acharyas are sublime; and that the ideas

the Jain dharma are lofty. The Jain literature is superior to the Buddhistic literature. As I continue to study the Jain Dharma and its literature, my fascination for them keeps increasing".

Dr. Johannes Hurtell (Germany)

The Jain Dharma is an entirely independent religion in all

respects. It has not borrowed ideas from other religions; nor is it an imitation of other religions.

Dr. Herman Jacobi

The history of the Jain Dharma and its teachings are greatly

beneficial to human beings in their endeavour to attain spiritual development and progress. This Dharma is true, independent, simple, straightforward, very valuable and entirelydifferent from Brahminism or the Vedic religion. It is not an atheistic religion like Buddhism.

Dr. A. Girnot (Paris)

The Jain Dharma is absolutely different and independent from the Hindu Dharma.

Max Mueller

It is probably impossible to find out when the Jain Dharma arose and when it was established; and since when it has been in existence. It is the most ancient of the religions of Hindustan.

G. J. R. Furlough

In the ancient history of India, the name of the Jain Dharma is evergreen and immortal.

Col. Toad

Undoubtedly, the Jain Dharma has reached the highest point of perfection in respect of its religious philosophy.

Dr. Purdolt

The Jain Dharma belongs to the highest rank of religions. The main principles of the Jain Dharma are based on scientific thinking. As science keeps progressing it keeps proving the soundness of the Jain philosophical principles.

Dr. L. P. Tessifori (Italy)

Jainism is unique in preaching kindness to all animals; and in preaching the need to give protection to all animals. I have not come across such a principle of benevolence in any other religion.

Ordi Corjeri (An American Scholar)

Compared to Buddhism, the Jain Dharma is more ancient. Twenty three Tirthankars~ existed before the emergence of Buddhism.

The Imperial Gazette of India.

Adinath had two daughters- Bramhi and Sundari and sons – Bharat and Bahubali. He founded the system of education to society for the first time. He imparted education to his daughter before he did to his sons, because he said that a mother was the first teacher of her children and needed education first. This shows that education of women is more important than education of men. Adinath used to teach the two daughters seating them in his lap, Bramhi in the right and Sundari in the left lap. He taught language and script to Bramhi and arithmetic to Sundari. The script taught to Brahmi later on came to be known as Brahmi Script ( Tamil language evolved from brahmi script). Brahmi wrote from left to right and this became the style of Bramhi Script. Sundari wrote numbers seating in the left lap and hence numbers had descending value from right to left. It we write 123, 1 is in hundred place, 2 in ten and 3 in unit place. It has been said,that the progress of number is from right to left.

Adinath invented grammar for the language he taught.


Bharat , the eldest son of Rishaba ( first tirthankar ) , was a sovereign ruler after whom the land around & eastwards of the river Indus came to be known as Bharat varsha / Bharat.

The constitution of India refers to India that is Bharat ; perhaps it would be more accurate to refer to our country as Bharat that is India.

“We come across the word ‘Arhat’ being described in the Rigved, thus it is clear that even prior to the writing of Rigved, India had been deeply influenced by the Arhats.

Anavaranam Rishabhm mamdri jinahm brihaspati vardya navayamarke, (Rigved 1 su0 160 m0)

Mishtbhani gyani, stuti yogya Rishabh ko puja sadhak mantro dwara vardhit karo ve stoat ko nahi chodte.

Aho mucham Rishabhm yagiyanamvirajant pratham madhvaranam apaam na paat mashvina hue indriyen indriya datt mojah: (Atharvaved –19-42-4).

Sampurna paapo se mukt, ahimsak vratiyo ke pratham raja, aditya swaroop shri Rishbhdev ka mei ahawan karta hoo. Ve mujhe buddhi, indriyabal aur atma bal pradan kare.

Naaabhirmarudevyaam putramjan yadrishabhnaamaan, tasya bharto putrascha taavapraj tasya bharatsya

Pitaa Rishabh, hemaadrerdakshinam varsha mahat bharatam nami shashaas. (Baraah Puran 74)

Naabhi ne Maarudevi me Rishabh naamak putra ko paida kiya. Us Rishabh kaa sabse badaa putra Bharat thaa. Bharat ke pita Rishabh ne Himaalaya ke dakshina me Bharat varsh per shaashan kiya.

Greek culture was deeply influenced by the followers of Sophist thinkers, amongst them were well known philosophers like Sukrat, Arastu and Plato. According to Magesthenes the most highly respected people in the society were called Hylobioi or Allobioi or Arahat, Greek names for Arhant, the name attributed to the Jain Tirthankaras. ‘its Hierophants were the prophets among the Egyptions, the Chaldeans among the Assyrians, the Druids among the Gauls, the Sarmanaeans who were the philosophers of the Baktrains and the Kelts, the Magi among the Persians and among the Indians the Gymnosophists.’(Mc. Crindle’s Ancient India) ”---- www.jainsamaj.org


Lord parshwanathji 23RD JINESHWAR was born in kashi ( varanasi ) in 19th century BC. His parents were King Aswasena , the ruler of kashi & Vamdevi mataji.


Lord Mahavir was the senior contemporary of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. In Buddhist books Lord Mahavir is always described as nigantha Nataputta (Nirgrantha Jnatrputra), i.e., the naked ascetic of the Jnätr clan. Further, in the Buddhist literature Jainism is referred to as an ancient religion. There are ample references in Buddhist books to the Jain naked ascetics, to the worship of Arhats in Jain chaityas or temples and to the chaturyäma dharma (i.e. fourfold religion) of 23rd Tirthankar Parsvanath.

Moreover, the Buddhist literature refers to the Jain tradition of Tirthankars and specifically mentions the names of Jain Tirthankars like Rishabhdev, Padmaprabh, Chandraprabh, Puspdant, Vimalnath, Dharmanath and Neminath. The Buddhist book Manorathapurani, mentions the names of many lay men and women as followers of the Parsvanath (23rd jain tirthankar )tradition and among them is the name of Vappa, the uncle of Gautama Buddha. In fact it is mentioned in the Buddhist literature that Gautama Buddha himself practiced penance according to the Jain way before he propounded his new religion.

Shramans and shraman culture preceded Vedic religion and culture in India ,term shraman culture constitues 24 jain tirthankars / gods/ jinas/ arhats whereby shraman culuture was started by first tirthankar Rishabhdevji/ Adinathji.

Aryans were too influenced by 23rd tirthankar parswanathji . Lord Mahavir & Lord Gautam Buddha were both heirs to lord parshwanathjis legacy. During The time of Lord Mahavira & Lord Buddha , there were many shraman monks who belonged an order, samgha, founded by Lord parshwanathji . They eventually joined Lord Mahavirs order or Lord Buddhas order. Jainism & Buddhism both belong to shramana tradition . Unlike Buddhism , which traces its origin to lord Buddha , The jain shramana tradition is represented in its legendary glory by 24 jinas / tirthankars , the first of whom was Lord Rishabha/ adinathji & last 24th lord Mahavira. Hence shraman culture today constitutes to Jainism & Buddhism.


There exist Jain Ramayan & Jain Mahabharat whereby its shown Lord Rama & Lord Krishna were jain Followers & in next cycle of tirthankars Laxman & Ravan would be born as tirthankars & will get liberated.




Meat-eating and wine-drinking in Brahminism were discarded on account of the influence of Jainism.

Lokmanya Tilak

Jainism and Buddhism are absolutely Indian but they are not offshoots of Hinduism.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

If those who are hostile to Jainism make a careful and incisive study of the Jain literature and assimilate it. their hostility will surely cease.

Dr. Ganganath Jha

The true and sublime message of Mahavir inspires in us the lofty emotion of universal amity as if through the cry of a 'conch shell.'

Sir Akbar Hydari

Shri Rishabhdev first disseminated the Jain Dharma.

Shri Varadikant M. A.

The Syadvad is an impregnable fort of the Jain Dharma. The bullets of the arguments and the counter-arguments of the controversialists cannot penetrate this fort.

Pandit Ram Misra Acharya

"Though the Jain Dharma had to face hateful opposition and countless impediments it has always and at all places! been victorious. Arhan is none other than Lord Parameshwar". A description of Lord Arhan is discernible even in the Vedas.

Swami Virupaksha Professor,

Sanskrit College, Indore

The Jain Dharma is so ancient that its origin and early history cannot be easily discovered.

Kannulal Jodhpuri

"I once saw two books in the hands of a Jain disciple. When I read them I found that they were true and impartial; and that I had entered ~ new realm of thought. I found that what I had studied from my boyhood and the Vedic flag which I kept flaunting were unreal and untrue. If there is a religion which is ancient, true and supremel?J sound, it is the Jain Dharma.

Yori Jivanand Paramhamsa

Only the Tirthankars, the founders and promoters of the Jain Dharma have conferred upon us the extraordinary gift of absolute non-violence.

Dr. Radhavinod Pal

The modern research in history has proved that the Jain Dharma existed even before Brahminism or the Hindu Dharma.

Justice Rangnekar

The fact that the Jain Dharma is an ancient religion has been proved by countless rock-edicts, caves, fossils and the excavations at Mohenjodaro. The Jain Dharma has been in vogue from the time of creation. It is more ancient than the Vedanta Dharma.

Swami Misra Jhah `

"The Syadvad provides us with a point of view of compre- hensive and unified visualization. It is not related to the fundamental secret of an object. According to it, we cannot attain a complete knowledge of an object unless we view it from various points of view. The syadvad is not a conjectural approach to reality. It teaches us how we should look at the universe.

Prof. Anandshankar Dhruva

The Jain Literature is greatly useful to the world in the sphere of historical research and studies. It provides abundant material to historian~, arche.ologists and scholars to carry out their research. The Jain Sadhus have set a magnificent example to the world of self-discipline by disciplining their senses absolutely and by observing vows and principles with the greatest degree of austerity. Even the life of a householder who has dedicated himself to the Principles of Jainism is so faultless and perfect that it should be honoured througho ut India.

Dr. Satish Chandra Vidya Bhushan (Calcutta)

Lord Mahavir communicated the message that Dharma is the only truth, with his voice that resounded like the sounds of a kettledrum. It is really significant that this message has captivated the whole country.

Dr. Rabindranath Tagore

We can attain absolute serenity by following the path shown by Mahavir. In no other religion do you find the philosophy of .non-violence developed to such an extent. On account of its philosophy of non-violence, the Jain Dharma is worthy of becoming the religion of the world.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

The Jain Dharma was in vogue even before the emergence of the Vedant darshan. The Jain Dharma has been in practice even from the beginning of creation.

Dr. Satishchandra

Vardhaman Tirthankar made the traditions of the F'rinciples and ideologies that had been expounded by the 23 earlier sages or Tirthankars go forward. We have a lot of evidence to establish the view that there were countless devotees and followers of Rishabhdev even before the commencement of the modern era. The Tirthankars are given prominence and honour even in the Yajurveda. The Jain Dharma has been in existence from times immemorial.

Dr. Radhakrishnan

The Jain literature is more ancient than the others and it is useful for the daily spiritual austerities and practices. So, I heartily desire to acquire a know1edge of Jain Dharma. It had an independent existence even before the emergence of Hinduism. Its impact was experienced by the greatest men of the past.

Ravbahadur Poornendra Narayana Sinha

It has been clearly established that Jainism is not a branch of Buddhism. In the Jain philosophy, there is a detailed discussion of the principle of life or existence. No other darshan has so many philosophical works.

Abjaksha Sarkar, M.A.,LLB.

The greatest principle of Jainism is its principle of non- violence. The greatness of this religion is that it permits even women to become initiated into Charitradh arma and to lead a life of service and dedication. The Buddhists do not fear com-mitting violence so much as Jains.

I very much like the subtler aspects of the Jain philosophical doctrine

Mohammad Hafiz Sayad, B.A.,LL.B.

I am greatly interested in the Jain doctrines because they contain a subtle and profound discussion of the Karma Philosophy.

M. D. Pande


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