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sribhashya-end of the adhyaya2-padha2

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The view of pAsupathas are discarded owing to inconsistency.




The Pasupathas accept Isvara but only as the efficient cause and cite

pradhana as the material cause and hence their theory of causation is

refuted in this suthra.




Ramanuja classified the schools of sankhya, buddhism, vaiseshika and

jaina as vedabAhyas, being outside the pale of the vedas and refuted

their thoeries of causation, following the suthras of BAdharAyaNa, in

accordance with the tenets of visishtadvaita. Now he says that the

system of pAsupatha is also contrary to the vedas because 'sarvE cha

EthE vEdhaviruddhAm thatthvaprakriyAm aihika Amushmika nissrEyasa

sAdhankalpanAscha kalpayanthi,' because all of them invent various means

of attaining happiness in this life and the next which are against the

teachings of the vedas about reality and hence their views are taken up

by this suthra and refuted.




Pasupathas are fourfold, namely, kApAlas,kAlAmukhas, pAsupathas and

saivas. The practice of the different sects are mutually contradicting.

Their theory, practices of meditation and their forms of devotion which

follow theirr own Agamas are in conflict with the vedas.




The upanishads declare that the supreme reality, Brahman can be known

only through the vedanta texts and not by any other authority. The

vedanta texts clearly show that Brahman is both material and the

efficient cause. As it can be seen from the exposition on the suthra

'janmAdhyasaya yathah,' the terms sath,Brahman and Athman are synonymous

and so are the epithets like siva or sambhu. Ramanuja quotes profusely

from the upanishads to show that the term Brahman denotes only Narayana.






suthra-36-aDHishTAna anupapatthEscha-2-2-36




Because of the impossibility of rulership.




The concept of Isvara as only the efficient cause is supported by

arguments based on inference, which according to Ramanuja, is

ficctitious.If it is contended that Pasupathi is the efficient cause

like a potter then he must have a body and creates the world from

pradhAna as the potter creates the pot from mud. But to them Pasupathi

is asarira as embodiment cannot be attributed to Isvara in which case He

will be finite.




suthra-37-karaNavaccheth na bhOgadhibhyah-2-2-37




It is not as jiva rules the body and senses from within, because of the

enjoyment etc.




If it is said that the Lord rules over pradhAna as the soul rules over

the body and the senses, it is not so, because the soul gets embodiment

due to adhrshta as a result of karma and the same cannot apply to





suthra-38-anthavathvam asarvajnathAva-2-2-38




Isvara will be subject to diisolution and will not be omniscient.




The pAsupatha theory of causation is dicarded being inconsistent.


Thus ends the pasupthyaDHikaraNam.














Origination being impossible




Since PAsupatha system was refuted on account of being contrary to the

vedas because it is based on their own Agama the opponent may argue that

even the pAncharAthra agama, held to be auhtoritative by the

visishtadvaitin cannot be authoritative. This aDhikarana is started to

remove such doubts and to establish the authority of pAncharathra

system.the first two suthras are of the nature of poorvapaksha while the

other two refutes the poorvapaksha view and proves that the pAnchrAthra

system is authoritative.




This suthra points out that even though the pAnchrAthra system accepts

the vedic concept of Brahman being both material and efficient cause

there are other aspects in it which are objectionable.




The theory of bhagavathas claim that 'paramakAraNAth

prabrahmabhoothavasudEath sankarshaNah nAma jivO jAyathe sankarshaNAth

pradhyumnasajnam manO jAyathE thasmAth aniruddhasajnO ahamkArO jAyathe,'

from the supreme cause, the Brahman who is vasudEva, sankarshaNa the

jiva is born; from him pradhyumna the mind and from him aniruddha the





Now the opponent says that the jiva is said to be unborn by the sruthi

'najAyathE mriyathE vA vipaschith,(Kato.II-18) the sentint being is

never born nor dies.' so this statement that sankarshana, the jiva is

born from Vasudeva, Brahman is contrary to the vedas.






suthra-40-na cha karthuh karaNam-2-2-40




No origination of the intrument from the doer.




Pradhyumna ,the mind is said to be born from sankarshaNa, the jiva, but

the mind being the instrument of cognition cannot originate from the

jiva, the doer.






suthra-41-vijnAnAdhibhAvE va thadhaprathishEdhah-2-2-41




There is no contradiction if they all are the nature of

intelligence,that is, Brahman.




Ramanuja says that the cricism of bhagavatha doctrine is made by those

who do not understand it properly. Brahman Himself who is vAsudeva ,out

of kindness , comes to reside in four forms as vasudeva, sankarshaNa,

pradhyumna and aniruddha, which are called His vyuhas. it s said in

Poushkarasamhitha ' karthavyathvEna vai yathra chAthurAthmyam

upAsyathE;kramAgathaih sva sajnAbhih brAhmaNairAgamam thu thath,' This

is the authoritative doctrine which brahmanas are enjoined to worship of

that which is the four fold nature of the self. The worship of the four

forms of vAsudeva etc is the worship of that Brahman who is called

vAsudeva, says sAthvatha samhitha also.




The Brahman who is complete with the six qualities that go to signify

the meaning of BhagavAn, namely, aisvarya,rulership, tejas,

brilliance,veerya,prowess, shakthi, power, bala, might and jnAna

knowledge, is worshippd by the devotees according to their capacity as

subtle, sukshma, vibhava, incarnations and vyuha, the fourfold





It is said that by worshipping the Lord in His vibhava form, the

devotee reaches the vyuha form, worshipping which he reaches the

subtle form of vAsudeva. Of these, vibhavas are the incarnations like

Rama and Krishna. Vyuhas are the four forms,

vAsudeva,sankarshaNa,pradhyumna and aniruddha. The subtle form is the

Brahman known as vAsudeva, with six qualities.




Therefore the vyuha forms like sankarshaNa are also the manifestations

of Brahman by His own will and hence there is no contradiction with

sruthi texts which declare clearly 'ajAyamAno bahuDhA vijayathE.' This

manifestations are ssumed through boundless love towards devotees.


The sankarshaNa and the others are termed as jiva,mind and ahamkAra in

the same way Brahman is denoted by the words AkAsa and prANa.












And because of denial of the origination of Jiva.




Ramanuja says that in pAncharAthara as well as in all other Agamas the

origination of the individual soul, jiva is denied. Therefore the

objection on account of the origination of the soul is dismissed.




Another objection is put forth that the pAncharAthra Agama was said to

have been taught to sAndilya, who did not get the knowledge from the

vedas . This is opposed to the vedas and hence the agama cannot be held

authoritative. But Ramanuja replies that it is like the utterance of

Narada that he has learnt all the vedas with their angas, ithihasas and

puraNas but yet came to grief and was taught bhumAvidhya. That was not

to undermine the vedas but to extoll bhumAvidhya.Similarly here also it

is to praise the system of pAncharAthra through which one can

understsand the meaning of reality as declared in the vedas easily. It

is for this purpose the Lord Narayana out of compassion taught the

essence of vedas in the form of pAncharAthra Agama. Hence it is not

vedaviruddha,opposed to vedas.




Ramanuja claims the authority of PanchrAthra in his own style thus:


'athah sa bhagavAnvedhaaikavedhyahparabrahmAbhiDhanah vasudevo

nikhilahEya prathyaneeka kalyANa gunaika thana

ananthajnanAnandhAdhyaparimitha udhAra gunasAgarah sathyasankalpah

chAthurvarnya chAthurAsramayavyavasThayA vyavasTHithAn dharmArThakAma

mOkshAkhya purushArThAbhimukhAn bhakthAn avalokya apAra kAruNya

souseelya vathsalya oudhArya mahOdhaDHih svasvarupa svavibhoothi

thadhArAdhana thathphalayAtTHAthmya avaboDHinah vedhAn rkyajussAmATharva

bhedhabinnAnaparimitha shAkhan viDhyarTHavAdhamanthrarupAn svEthar

sakala suranara duravagAhAn cha avaDHArya thadharTHa yATHAthmyAvaboDHi

panchrAthrasasthramsvayamEva niramimeetha ithi niravadhyam.'


The meaning of the long passage is as follows:


The Lord Vasudeva, who is Brahman, known only through the vedas,who is

free from evil,possessor of auspicious qualities, the ocean of limitless

generous attributes,of infinite knowledge and bliss,of infallible will,

seeing his devotees engaged in the duties of varanasrama and pursuing

the four purusharthas , out of compassion, being the ocean of love,and

other qualities , taught the pancharathra, the essence of the vedas, to

those who were bent on worshipping his glorious forms and who were

incapable of comprehending the teaching of the vedas.




Ramanuja says that Vyasa ,the author of brahmasuthras, the codifier of

vedas explains the pAnchrAthra system in mahabharatha and ends with

'idham mahOpanishadham chathurvedasamanvitham;sAnkhyayOgakrthAnthEna

pancharAthrAnusabdhitham.' , meaning , this great upanishad comprising

of the four vedas, sankhya and yOga is called PAncharAthra. Further he

extolls the Agama as 'idhamsrEyam idham brahma idham hithamanutthamam;

rgyajussAmabhirjushtam aTharvAngirasaisthaTHA.' It means that this agama

is the best,this is Brahman and this is the most beneficial and is in

accordance with the four vedas. Here he terms sankhya and yOga do not

mean the respective systems but they refer to jnanayOga and karmayOga as

mentioned in the Gita, jnAnayOgEna sAnkhyAnAm karmayOgEna yOginAm.




Ramanuja concludes the chapter on the refutation of the non-vedantaic

schools of philosophy by saying that the other systems being expounded

by humans are liable to be contradictory and with limitations. but the

pAncharAthra is taught by Narayana Himself , who is professed as Brahman

by all the scriptural texts and hence it is indisputable.




Finally Ramanuja says that the sAriraka sAsthra does not deny the

systems of sankhya,yoga,vaiseshika and pasupatha in toto, as it does

with repect to buddhism and jainism but refutes only their theories of

causation and concept of reality. Sankhyan principles like the 24

thathvas and the techniques of yoga are accepted as well as the

argumetative techniques and the means of cognition etc of the viseshikas

and the concept of pasupati is not rejected. These systems do not accept

Brahman as the sole cause of the universe and the inner self of all and

only these points are criticised.


Thus ends the pAncharAthrADhikaraNam.




This is the end of the second padha of the second aDhyAya

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