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Supersoul and the soul, 'within the heart?'

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It is an esoteric meaning. Heart, meaning at the core, or in the inner dimension. So paramatma is at the inner core of our being. We are part of paramatma, paramatma is not part of us. Paramatma means Param=supreme, Atma=Soul or consciousness. So Paramatma is the consciouness or soul of God. Brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan are the three aspects of God. Brahman is the aspect of infinite all pervading energy and power, Paramatma is the aspect of consciousness or soul or being a living consciousness, Bhagavan is the personality or mind/id. These three aspects are all one and the same substance, Vishnu. Paramatma is present everywhere, just as Brahman is present everywhere, and Bhagavan is present everywhere. You cannot separate them. So when saying Paramatma is in the heart of all living entities, this means that Paramatma is at the heart of all of reality. Paramatma is within your consciousness, manifesting your consciousness, your consciousness or soul is an aspect of God's consciousness, Paramatma. Imagine a sphere made of energy, within that sphere is another much much smaller sphere. Paramatma is the large sphere of energy, the jiva is the smaller sphere within the larger sphere, both are spheres of energy, but one exists within, and is comprised of the other. This is acintya bhedabheda, we are one with Paramatma, but we are different as well.


This is why we are advised to look within, we are not alone...

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Imagine a sphere made of energy, within that sphere is another much much smaller sphere. Paramatma is the large sphere of energy, the jiva is the smaller sphere within the larger sphere, both are spheres of energy, but one exists within, and is comprised of the other. This is acintya bhedabheda, we are one with Paramatma, but we are different as well.





Wouldn't you say Paramatma is within us not we are within Paramatma. I would have to draw a 3rd Diagram from what you said. I need a picture to understand this.

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Paramatma exists everywhere. Paramatma is the consciousness of God. So really everything exists within Paramatma. At the same time we can say Paramatma exists within us, because Paramatma exists everywhere, within and without. But specifically the concept of Paramatma in the heart means within our being and mind, the ground or substratum of our and all existence. The Gita says :


I am seated in everyone's heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness. By all the Vedas I am to be known; indeed I am the compiler of Vedanta, and I am the knower of the Vedas.


For one who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me, I am never lost, nor is he ever lost to Me.



And then Krishna speaking in the 11th canto of the Bhagavatam:


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, the Supreme Lord gives life to every living being and is situated within the heart along with the life air and primal sound vibration. The Lord can be perceived in His subtle form within the heart by one's mind, since the Lord controls the minds of everyone, even great demigods like Lord Siva. The Supreme Lord also assumes a gross form as the various sounds of the Vedas, composed of short and long vowels and consonants of different intonations.


The Supersoul alone is the ultimate controller and creator of this world, and thus He alone is also the created. Similarly, the Soul of all existence Himself both maintains and is maintained, withdraws and is withdrawn. No other entity can be properly ascertained as separate from Him, the Supreme Soul, who nonetheless is distinct from everything and everyone else. The appearance of the threefold material nature, which is perceived within Him, has no actual basis. Rather, you should understand that this material nature, composed of the three modes, is simply the product of His illusory potency.


Real spiritual knowledge is based on the discrimination of spirit from matter, and it is cultivated by scriptural evidence, austerity, direct perception, reception of the Puranas' historical narrations, and logical inference. The Absolute Truth, which alone was present before the creation of the universe and which alone will remain after its destruction, is also the time factor and the ultimate cause. Even in the middle stage of this creation's existence, the Absolute Truth alone is the actual reality.


Within this world, whatever is perceived by the mind, speech, eyes or other senses is Me alone and nothing besides Me. All of you please understand this by a straightforward analysis of the facts.


According to My instructions, one should fix the mind on Me alone. If, however, one continues to see many different values and goals in life rather than seeing everything within Me, then although apparently awake, one is actually dreaming due to incomplete knowledge, just as one may dream that one has wakened from a dream.

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It sounds like same view, flipped over, within and without:


{got it from another forum} its by devotee called Keshava.



God's pervasion of the atomic souls (anuvyapti):


The Vadakalai Acharyas (diagram A) say:


1. God being infinite cannot pervade or penetrate into the atomic souls. His infinite magnitude cannot dwell within the atomic soul. Nor can the infinite God divide Himself into fragments and plant them in each soul.


2. God overlaps the finite soul. He pervades the atomic soul from outside and not inside.


3. God's presence in souls is thus coexistence and not prevasion. (P.N. Srinivasachar Philosophy of Visistadvaita 1943 P535


4. It follows that God is really, fundamentally and primarily transcendental.


The Tengalai Acharyas (diagram B) say this:


1. God has infinite power and can enter into the atomic soul. He being omnipotent can enter en masse into the finite souls. An infinite's fragment is merely a miniture infinite. God's omnipresence (vibhutva) enables Him to be present simultaneously in every particle of matter.


2. God's presence in souls is a real and indwelling pervasion.


3. It is therefore real immanence. God is equally transcendental and immanent. He pervades everything in His full infinite state.

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Keshava is not a Gaudiya bhakta. He teaches the Sri Sampradaya conceptions, the followers of Ramanuja.


Jiva Goswami likens the jivatma to a spark of a great fire. The spark is made of the fire. It is a tiny section of the fire. So this is the Gaudiya conception of acintya bhedabheda. The jivatma is comprised of Paramatma. We are both comprised of the same Atma, or soul, or consciousness. The Paramatma is infinite and the jivatma is a finite part and parcel of the Paramatma. This means we are one with Paramatma in quality, which means we are made of Paramatma, but we are different in quantity and ability.


Therefore Krishna says:


"The Supersoul alone is the ultimate controller and creator of this world, and thus He alone is also the created. Similarly, the Soul of all existence Himself both maintains and is maintained, withdraws and is withdrawn. No other entity can be properly ascertained as separate from Him, the Supreme Soul, who nonetheless is distinct from everything and everyone else. The appearance of the threefold material nature, which is perceived within Him, has no actual basis. Rather, you should understand that this material nature, composed of the three modes, is simply the product of His illusory potency."



This is getting to the point succinctly. The only substance that exists is the Paramatma. Whatever seems to exist is only existing as a part of Paramatma. So this means Paramatma exists within and without of everything. Everything is a manifestation of God's soul. So the idea of Paramatma being within means that Paramatma is the substratum of all existence.


I am using Substratum to mean:


1. Substance that supports attributes of reality.

2. The material of which something is made and from which

it derives its special qualities.

3. The permanent subject of qualities or cause of

phenomena; substance.


Therefore Krishna says:


"Within this world, whatever is perceived by the mind, speech, eyes or other senses is Me alone and nothing besides Me. All of you please understand this by a straightforward analysis of the facts."


This is because everything is made of Paramatma. Paramatma and Krishna are the same thing. Just like if you take a piece of gold and make a gold locket, the locket is made of gold and it;s essential nature is derived from gold, as the gold is what it is made from. So the jiva and whatever else that exists, is made of Paramatma.


Krishna explains from the Bhagavatam:


"Gold and earth are originally existing as ingredients. From gold one may fashion golden ornaments such as bracelets and earrings, and from earth one may fashion clay pots and saucers. The original ingredients gold and earth exist before the products made from them, and when the products are eventually destroyed, the original ingredients, gold and earth, will remain. Thus, since the ingredients are present in the beginning and at the end, they must also be present in the middle phase, taking the form of a particular product to which we assign for convenience a particular name, such as bracelet, earring, pot or saucer. We can therefore understand that since the ingredient cause exists before the creation of a product and after the product's destruction, the same ingredient cause must be present during the manifest phase, supporting the product as the basis of its reality."



Now here we read what Srila Prabhupada has written:


"For material creation, Lord Krsna's plenary expansion assumes three Visnus. The first one, Maha-Visnu, creates the total material energy, known as mahat-tattva. The second, Garbhodakasayi Visnu, enters into all the universes to create diversities in each of them. The third, Ksirodakasayi Visnu, is diffused as the all-pervading Supersoul in all the universes and is known as Paramatma, who is present even within the atoms. Anyone who knows these three Visnus can be liberated from material entanglement."


Paramatma is the all pervading soul of God in the material world. Diffused throughout the material world everything is saturated by and manifest from Paramatma.


Here in the second canto Prabhupada explains:


"...before the creation or manifestation of the material cosmic world, the Lord exists as total energy (maha-samasti), and thus desiring Himself to be diffused to many, He expands Himself further into multitotal energy (samasti). From the multitotal energy He further expands Himself into individuals in three dimensions, namely adhyatmic, adhidaivic and adhibhautic, as explained before (vyasti). As such, the whole creation and the creative energies are nondifferent and different simultaneously. Because everything is an emanation from Him (the Maha-Visnu or Maha-samasti), nothing of the cosmic energies is different from Him; but all such expanded energies have specific functions and display as designed by the Lord, and therefore they are simultaneously different from the Lord. The living entities are also similar energy (marginal potency) of the Lord, and thus they are simultaneously one with and different from Him."

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One more thing, the idea of Paramatma as a specific manifestation from Ksirodakasayi Visnu is only for the material world. In other words Paramatma exists within the material world, in the spiritual world Paramatma is manifest differently, as the Cit Sakti and as Bhagavan. There is no need for the Paramatma feature, since Paramatma is intended to deliver the jivatma from the material world. Not that Krishna is not all pervading in the spiritual world as well, it is just a different feature, the Sandhini Sakti of the Cit potency is all pervading and manifests the reality of the spiritual world i.e Vraja, trees, houses, etc.


This is from Prabhupada in the Gita:


"The Paramatma manifestation is also a temporary all-pervasive aspect of the Ksirodakasayi Visnu. The Paramatma manifestation is not eternal in the spiritual world."


Now this may sound confusing, but really it is just a categorizing of the same principle. Paramatma is Krishna, Cit Sakti is also Krishna. Paramatma works in the Material world, Cit Sakti works in the spiritual world. Really they are the same thing, but they do different things, and have different purposes, therefore they are called by different names.


The same principle is there, everything is manifest from, is part and parcel of, and is controlled by Krishna.

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One more thing.


When the word "heart" is used, it does not mean the physical heart, it means the substratum of the mind/consciousness.


This is from the Bhagavatam where Prabhupada describes the "heart" in this sense, as "(the seat of the mind)"


nididhyasor atma-mayam

hrdayam nirabhidyata

tato manas candra iti

sankalpah kama eva ca




nididhyasoh—being desirous to know; atma-mayam—own energy; hrdayam—the location of the mind; nirabhidyata—was manifested; tatah—thereafter; manah—the mind; candrah—the controlling deity of the mind, the moon; iti—thus; sankalpah—determination; kamah—desire; eva—as much as; ca—also.




When there was a desire to think about the activities of His own energy, then the heart (the seat of the mind), the mind, the moon, determination and all desire became manifested.




The heart of every living entity is the seat of the Supersoul, Paramatma, a plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Without His presence the living entity cannot get into the working energy according to his past deeds. The living entities who are conditioned in the material world are manifested in the creation in terms of respective inclinations inherent in them, and the requisite material body is offered to each and every one of them by the material energy under the direction of the Supersoul. This is explained in the Bhagavad-gita (9.10). When, therefore, the Supersoul is situated in the heart of the conditioned soul, the requisite mind is manifested in the conditioned soul, and he becomes conscious of his occupation as one is conscious of his duty after waking up from slumber. Therefore the material mind of the living entity develops when the Supersoul sits on his heart, after which the mind, the controlling deity (moon), and then the activities of the mind (namely thinking, feeling and willing) all take place. The activities of the mind cannot begin without the manifestation of the heart, and the heart becomes manifested when the Lord wants to see the activities of the material creation.




yo ’dhyatmiko ’yam purusah

so ’sav evadhidaivikah

yas tatrobhaya-vicchedah

puruso hy adhibhautikah




yah—one who; adhyatmikah—is possessed of the sense organs; ayam—this; purusah—personality; sah—he; asau—that; eva—also; adhidaivikah—controlling deity; yah—that which; tatra—there; ubhaya—of both; vicchedah—separation; purusah—person; hi—for; adhibhautikah—the visible body or the embodied living entity.




The individual person possessing different instruments of senses is called the adhyatmic person, and the individual controlling deity of the senses is called adhidaivic. The embodiment seen on the eyeballs is called the adhibhautic person.




The supreme controlling summum bonum is the personality of Godhead in His plenary portion of Paramatma, or the Supersoul manifestation. In the Bhagavad-gita (10.42) it is said:


athava bahunaitena

kim jnatena tavarjuna

vistabhyaham idam krtsnam

ekamsena sthito jagat


All the controlling deities like Visnu, Brahma and Siva are different manifestations of the Paramatma feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, who exhibits himself in such manners by entering into each and every universe generated from Him.




puruso ’ndam vinirbhidya

yadasau sa vinirgatah

atmano ’yanam anvicchann

apo ’sraksic chucih sucih




purusah—the Supreme Person, Paramatma; andam—the universes; vinirbhidya—making them each separately situated; yada—when; asau—the same; sah—He (the Lord); vinirgatah—came out; atmanah—of Himself; ayanam—lying in place; anvicchan—desiring; apah—water; asraksit—created; sucih—the most pure; sucih—transcendental.




After separating the different universes, the gigantic universal form of the Lord [Maha-Visnu], which came out of the causal ocean, the place of appearance for the first purusa-avatara, entered into each of the separate universes, desiring to lie on the created transcendental water [Garbhodaka].




After analysis of the living entities and the Supreme Lord, Paramatma, the independent source of all other living beings, Srila Sukadeva Gosvami is now presenting the prime necessity for devotional service to the Lord, which is the only occupational business of all living entities. The Supreme Lord Sri Krsna and all His plenary portions and extensions of plenary portions are nondifferent from one another, and thus the supreme independence is in each and every one of them. In order to prove this, Sukadeva Gosvami (as promised to King Pariksit) describes herein the independence of the purusa-avatara Personality of Godhead, even in the sphere of the material creation. Such activities of the Lord are also transcendental, and therefore they are also lila, or pastimes, of the absolute Lord."




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jneyam yat tat pravaksyami

yaj jnatvamrtam asnute

anadi mat-param brahma

na sat tan nasad ucyate




jneyam--knowable; yat--that; tat--which; pravaksyami--I shall now explain; yat--which; jnatva--knowing; amrtam--nectar; asnute--taste; anadi--beginningless; mat-param--subordinate to Me; brahma--spirit; na--neither; sat--cause; tat--that; na--nor; asat--effect; ucyate--is called.





I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahman, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.




The Lord has explained the field of activities and the knower of the field. He has also explained the process of knowing the knower of the field of activities. Now He is explaining the knowable, both the soul and the Supersoul respectively. By knowledge of the knower, both the soul and the Supersoul, one can relish the nectar of life. As explained in the Second Chapter, the living entity is eternal. This is also confirmed here. There is no specific date at which the jiva was born. Nor can anyone trace out the history of the jivatma's manifestation from the Supreme Lord. Therefore it is beginningless. The Vedic literature confirms this: na jayate mriyate va vipascit. The knower of the body is never born and never dies, and he is full of knowledge. The Supreme Lord is also stated in the Vedic literature as pradhana-ksetrajna-patir gunesah. The Supreme Lord as the Supersoul is the chief knower of the body, and He is the master of the three modes of material nature. In the smrti it is said: dasa-bhuto harer eva nanyasvaiva kadacana. The living entities are eternally in the service of the Supreme Lord. This is also confirmed by Lord Caitanya in His teachings; therefore the description of Brahman mentioned in this verse is in relation to the individual soul, and when the word Brahman is applied to the living entity, it is to be understood that he is vijnana-brahma as opposed to ananta-brahma. Ananta-brahma is the Supreme Brahman Personality of Godhead.







sarvatah pani-padam tat

sarvato 'ksi-siro-mukham

sarvatah srutimal loke

sarvam avrtya tisthati




sarvatah--everywhere; pani--hands; padam--legs; tat--that; sarvatah--everywhere; aksi--eyes; sirah--head; mukham--face; sarvatah--everywhere; sruti-mat--hearing; loke--in the world; sarvam--everything; avrtya--covering; tisthati--exists.





Everywhere are His hands and legs, His eyes and faces, and He hears everything. In this way the Supersoul exists.




As the sun exists diffusing its unlimited rays, so does the Supersoul, or Supreme Personality of Godhead. He exists in His all-pervading form, and in Him exist all the individual living entities, beginning from the first great teacher, Brahma, down to the small ants. There are unlimited heads, legs, hands and eyes, and unlimited living entities. All are existing in and on the Supersoul. Therefore the Supersoul is all-pervading. The individual soul, however, cannot say that he has his hands, legs and eyes everywhere. That is not possible. If he thinks that although under ignorance he is not conscious that his hands and legs are diffused all over, but when he attains to proper knowledge he will come to that stage, his thinking is contradictory. This means that the individual soul, having become conditioned by material nature, is not supreme. The Supreme is different from the individual soul. The Supreme Lord can extend His hand without limit; the individual soul cannot. In Bhagavad-gita the Lord says that if anyone offers Him a flower, or a fruit, or a little water, He accepts. If the Lord is a far distance away, how can He accept things? This is the omnipotence of the Lord: even though He is situated in His own abode, far, far away from earth, He can extend His hand to accept what anyone offers. That is His potency. In the Brahma-samhita it is stated, goloka eva nivasaty: although He is always engaged in pastimes in His transcendental planet, He is all-pervading. The individual soul cannot claim that he is all-pervading. Therefore this verse describes the Supreme Soul, the Personality of Godhead, not the individual soul.






bahir antas ca bhutanam

acaram caram eva ca

suksmatvat tad avijneyam

durastham cantike ca tat




bahih--outside; antah--inside; ca--also; bhutanam--of all living entities; acaram--not moving; caram--moving; eva--also; ca--and; suksmatvat--on account of being subtle; tat--that; avijneyam--unknowable; durastham--far away; ca--also; antike--near; ca--and; tat--that.




The Supreme Truth exists both internally and externally, in the moving and nonmoving. He is beyond the power of the material senses to see or to know. Although far, far away, He is also near to all.




In Vedic literature we understand that Narayana, the Supreme Person, is residing both outside and inside of every living entity. He is present both in the spiritual and material worlds. Although He is far, far away, still He is near to us. These are the statements of Vedic literature. Asino duram vrajati sayano yati sarvatah. And, because He is always engaged in transcendental bliss, we cannot understand how He is enjoying His full opulence. We cannot see or understand with these material senses. Therefore in the Vedic language it is said that to understand Him our material mind and senses cannot act. But one who has purified his mind and senses by practicing Krsna consciousness in devotional service can see Him constantly. It is confirmed in Brahma-samhita that the devotee who has developed love for the Supreme God can see Him always, without cessation. And it is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (11.54) that He can be seen and understood only by devotional service. Bhaktya tv ananyaya sakyah.






avibhaktam ca bhutesu

vibhaktam iva ca sthitam

bhuta-bhartr ca taj jneyam

grasisnu prabhavisnu ca




avibhaktam--without division; ca--also; bhutesu--in every living being; vibhaktam--divided; iva--as if; ca--also; sthitam--situated; bhuta-bhartr--maintainer of all living entities; ca--also; tat--that; jneyam--to be understood; grasisnu--devours; prabhavisnu--develops; ca--also.




Although the Supersoul appears to be divided, He is never divided. He is situated as one. Although He is the maintainer of every living entity, it is to be understood that He devours and develops all.




The Lord is situated in everyone's heart as the Supersoul. Does that mean that He has become divided? No. Actually, He is one. The example is given of the sun: The sun, at the meridian, is situated in its place. But if one goes for five thousand miles in all directions and asks, "Where is the sun?" everyone will say that it is shining on his head. In the Vedic literature this example is given to show that although He is undivided, He is situated as if divided. Also it is said in Vedic literature that one Visnu is present everywhere by His omnipotence, just as the sun appears in many places to many persons. And the Supreme Lord, although the maintainer of every living entity, devours everything at the time of annihilation. This was confirmed in the Eleventh Chapter when the Lord said that He has come to devour all the warriors assembled at Kuruksetra. He also mentioned that in the form of time He devours also. He is the annihilator, the killer of all. When there is creation, He develops all from their original state, and at the time of annihilation He devours them. The Vedic hymns confirm the fact that He is the origin of all living entities and the rest of all. After creation, everything rests in His omnipotence, and after annihilation, everything again returns to rest in Him. These are the confirmations of Vedic hymns. Yato va imani bhutani jayante yena jatani jivanti yat prayanty abhisam-visanti tad brahma tad vijijnasasva (Taittiriya Upanisad, 3.1).






jyotisam api taj jyotis

tamasah param ucyate

jnanam jneyam jnana-gamyam

hrdi sarvasya visthitam




jyotisam--in all luminous objects; api--also; tat--that; jyotih--source of light; tamasah--of the darkness; param--beyond; ucyate--is said; jnanam--knowledge; jneyam--to be known; jnana-gamyam--to be approached by knowledge; hrdi--in the heart; sarvasya--of everyone; visthitam--situated.




He is the source of light in all luminous objects. He is beyond the darkness of matter and is unmanifested. He is knowledge, He is the object of knowledge, and He is the goal of knowledge. He is situated in everyone's heart.




The Supersoul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the source of light in all luminous objects like the sun, moon, stars, etc. In the Vedic literature we find that in the spiritual kingdom there is no need of sun or moon because the effulgence of the Supreme Lord is there. In the material world that brahmajyoti, the Lord's spiritual effulgence, is covered by mahat-tattva, the material elements; therefore in this material world we require the assistance of sun, moon, electricity, etc., for light. But in the spiritual world there is no need of such things. It is clearly stated in the Vedic literature that because of His luminous effulgence, everything is illuminated. It is clear, therefore, that His situation is not in the material world. He is situated in the spiritual world which is far, far away in the spiritual sky. That is also confirmed in the Vedic literature. Aditya-varnam tamasah parastat. He is just like the sun, eternally luminous, but He is far, far beyond the darkness of this material world. His knowledge is transcendental. The Vedic literature confirms that Brahman is concentrated transcendental knowledge. To one who is anxious to be transferred to that spiritual world, knowledge is given by the Supreme Lord who is situated in everyone's heart.

One Vedic mantra says: tam ha devam atma-buddhi-prakasam mumuksur vai saranam aham prapadye. One must surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead if he at all wants liberation. As far as the goal of ultimate knowledge is concerned, it is also confirmed in Vedic literature: tam eva viditvati mrtyum eti. "Only by knowing You can one surpass the boundary of birth and death." He is situated in everyone's heart as the supreme controller. The Supreme has legs and hands distributed everywhere, and this cannot be said of the individual soul. Therefore that there are two knowers of the field of activity, the individual soul and the Supersoul, must be admitted. One's hands and legs are distributed locally, but Krsna's hands and legs are distributed everywhere. This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad: sarvasya prabhum isanam sarvasya saranam brhat. That Supreme Personality of Godhead, Supersoul, is the prabhu or master of all living entities; therefore He is the ultimate center of all living entities. So there is no denying the fact that the Supreme Supersoul and the individual soul are always different.







iti ksetram tatha jnanam

jneyam coktam samasatah

mad-bhakta etad vijnaya





iti--thus; ksetram--the field of activities (the body); tatha--also; jnanam--knowledge; jneyam--the knowable; ca--also; uktam--described; samasatah--in summary; mat-bhaktah--My devotee; etat--all this; vijnaya--after understanding; mat-bhavaya--My nature; upapadyate--attains.




Thus the field of activities [the body], knowledge and the knowable have been summarily described by Me. Only My devotees can understand this thoroughly and thus attain to My nature.




The Lord has described in summary the body, knowledge and the knowable. This knowledge is of three things: the knower, the knowable and the process of knowing. Combined, these are called vijnana, or the science of knowledge. Perfect knowledge can be understood by the unalloyed devotees of the Lord directly. Others are unable to understand. The monists say that at the ultimate stage these three items become one, but the devotees do not accept this. Knowledge and development of knowledge mean understanding oneself in Krsna consciousness. We are being led by material consciousness, but as soon as we transfer all consciousness to Krsna's activities and realize that Krsna is everything, then we attain real knowledge. In other words, knowledge is nothing but the preliminary stage of understanding devotional service perfectly.

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