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EWG Research


Bottled Water Quality Investigation: 10 Major Brands, 38 Pollutants


Bottled water contains disinfection byproducts, fertilizer residue, and pain medication


October 2008




Authors: Olga Naidenko, PhD, Senior Scientist; Nneka Leiba, MPH, Researcher; Renee Sharp, MS, Senior Scientist; Jane Houlihan, MSCE, Vice President for Research


The bottled water industry promotes an image of purity, but comprehensive testing by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) reveals a surprising array of chemical contaminants in every bottled water brand analyzed, including toxic byproducts of chlorination in Walmart’s Sam’s Choice and Giant Supermarket's Acadia brands, at levels no different than routinely found in tap water. Several Sam's Choice samples purchased in California exceeded legal limits for bottled water contaminants in that state. Cancer-causing contaminants in bottled water purchased in 5 states (North Carolina, California, Virginia, Delaware and Maryland) and the District of Columbia substantially exceeded the voluntary standards established by the bottled water industry.

Unlike tap water, where consumers are provided with test results every year, the bottled water industry does not disclose the results of any contaminant testing that it conducts. Instead, the industry hides behind the claim that bottled water is held to the same safety standards as tap water. But with promotional campaigns saturated with images of mountain springs, and prices 1,900 times the price of tap water, consumers are clearly led to believe that they are buying a product that has been purified to a level beyond the water that comes out of the garden hose.

To the contrary, our tests strongly indicate that the purity of bottled water cannot be trusted. Given the industry's refusal to make available data to support their claims of superiority, consumer confidence in the purity of bottled water is simply not justified.

Laboratory tests conducted for EWG at one of the country’s leading water quality laboratories found that 10 popular brands of bottled water, purchased from grocery stores and other retailers in 9 states and the District of Columbia, contained 38 chemical pollutants altogether, with an average of 8 contaminants in each brand. More than one-third of the chemicals found are not regulated in bottled water. In the Sam's Choice and Acadia brands levels of some chemicals exceeded legal limits in California as well as industry-sponsored voluntary safety standards. Four brands were also contaminated with bacteria.

Walmart and Giant Brands No Different than Tap Water


Two of 10 brands tested, Walmart's and Giant's store brands, bore the chemical signature of standard municipal water treatment — a cocktail of chlorine disinfection byproducts, and for Giant water, even fluoride. In other words, this bottled water was chemically indistinguishable from tap water. The only striking difference: the price tag.

In both brands levels of disinfection byproducts exceeded safety standards established by the state of California and the bottled water industry:


  • Walmart’s Sam’s Choice bottled water purchased at several locations in the San Francisco bay area was polluted with disinfection byproducts called trihalomethanes at levels that exceed the state’s legal limit for bottled water (CDPR 2008). These byproducts are linked to cancer and reproductive problems and form when disinfectants react with residual pollution in the water. Las Vegas tap water was the source for these bottles, according to Walmart representatives (EWG 2008).<!-- br-->
  • Also in Walmart’s Sam’s Choice brand, lab tests found a cancer-causing chemical called bromodichloromethane at levels that exceed safety standards for cancer-causing chemicals under California’s Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65, OEHHA 2008). EWG is filing suit under this act to ensure that Walmart posts a warning on bottles as required by law: “WARNING: This product contains a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer."<!-- br-->
  • These same chemicals also polluted Giant's Acadia brand at levels in excess of California’s safety standards, but this brand is sold only in Mid-Atlantic states where California’s health-based limits do not apply. Nevertheless, disinfection byproducts in both Acadia and Sam’s Choice bottled water exceeded the industry trade association’s voluntary safety standards (IBWA 2008a), for samples purchased in Washington DC and 5 states (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and California). The bottled water industry boasts that its internal regulations are stricter than the FDA bottled water regulations(IBWA 2008b), but voluntary standards that companies are failing to meet are of little use in protecting public health.

Figure 1. Pollutants in Walmart and Giant Bottled Water Exceed Industry and California Standards


The California legal limit of 10 parts per billion (ppb) for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in bottled water has been set by the California Health and Safety Code, Division 104, Part 5 (Sherman Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Law, CDPH 2008). The industry standard, Bottled Water Code of Practice, published by the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA 2008a), also sets a limit for TTHMs at 10 ppb. Two of the TTHM chemicals, bromodichloromethane and chloroform, are regulated in California under the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act, also known as Proposition 65 (OEHHA 2008). For bromodichloromethane, a concentration above 2.5 ppb exceeds a cancer safety standard, as established by the state of California (OEHHA 2008). The standard is based on the Proposition 65 No Significant Risk Level for bromodichloromethane at 5 micrograms per day. For a water consumption rate of 2 L/day (Title 27, California Code of Regulations, Article 7, Section § 25721), this corresponds to a contaminant concentration in water of 2.5 ppb. The concentration values indicated by the bars correspond to findings from the specific brand purchased at the specific location. For the entire dataset, see section Walmart and Giant Water Exceeds Safety Limits. Two independent samples of Sam's Choice water were purchased in Oakland, CA, with total trihalomethane levels at 21 and 23 ppb and levels of bromodichloromethane at 7.7 and 8.5 ppb. Two independent samples of Acadia water were purchased in Stafford, VA with total trihalomethane levels at 22 and 23 ppb.

Broad Range of Pollutants Found in 10 Brands


Altogether, the analyses conducted by the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory of these 10 brands of bottled water revealed a wide range of pollutants, including not only disinfection byproducts, but also common urban wastewater pollutants like caffeine and pharmaceuticals (Tylenol); heavy metals and minerals including arsenic and radioactive isotopes; fertilizer residue (nitrate and ammonia); and a broad range of other, tentatively identified industrial chemicals used as solvents, plasticizers, viscosity decreasing agents, and propellants.

The identity of most brands in this study are anonymous. This is typical scientific practice for market-basket style testing programs. We consider these results to represent a snapshot of the market during the window of time in which we purchased samples. While our study findings show that consumers can't trust that bottled water is pure or cleaner than tap water, it was not designed to indicate pollutant profiles typical over time for particular brands. Walmart and Giant bottled water brands are named in this study because our first tests and numerous followup tests confirmed that these brands contained contaminants at levels that exceeded state standards or voluntary industry guidelines.

The study also included assays for breast cancer cell proliferation, conducted at the University of Missouri. One bottled water brand spurred a 78% increase in the growth of the breast cancer cells compared to the control sample, with 1,200 initial breast cancer cells multiplying to 32,000 in 4 days, versus only 18,000 for the control sample, indicating that chemical contaminants in the bottled water sample stimulated accelerated division of cancer cells. When estrogen-blocking chemicals were added, the effect was inhibited, showing that the cancer-spurring chemicals mimic estrogen, a hormone linked to breast cancer. Though this result is considered a modest effect relative to the potency of some other industrial chemicals in spurring breast cancer cell growth, the sheer volume of bottled water people consume elevates the health significance of the finding. While the specific chemical(s) responsible for this cancer cell proliferation were not identified in this pilot study, ingestion of endocrine-disrupting and cancer-promoting chemicals from plastics is considered to be a potentially important health concern (Le 2008).

With Bottled Water, You Don't Know What You're Getting


Americans drink twice as much bottled water today as they did ten years ago, for an annual total of over nine billion gallons with producer revenues nearing twelve billions (BMC 2007; IBWA 2008c). Purity should be included in a price that, at a typical cost of $3.79 per gallon, is 1,900 times the cost of public tap water.<sup>1</sup> But EWG’s tests indicate that in some cases the industry may be delivering a beverage little cleaner than tap water, sold at a premium price. The health consequences of exposures to these complex mixtures of contaminants like those found in bottled water have never been studied.

Unlike public water utilities, bottled water companies are not required to notify their customers of the occurrence of contaminants in the water, or, in most states, to tell their customers where the water comes from, how and if it is purified, and if it is merely bottled tap water. Information provided on the U.S. EPA website clearly describes the lack of quality assurance for bottled water: "Bottled water is not necessarily safer than your tap water" (EPA 2007b). The Agency further adds following consumer information:



Some bottled water is treated more than tap water, while some is treated less or not treated at all. Bottled water costs much more than tap water on a per gallon basis... Consumers who choose to purchase bottled water should carefully read its label to understand what they are buying, whether it is a better taste, or a certain method of treatment (EPA 2007b).


In conjunction with this testing program, EWG conducted a survey of 228 brands of bottled water, compiling information from websites, labels and other marketing materials. We found that fewer than half describe the water source (i.e., municipal or natural) or provide any information on whether or how the water is treated. In the absence of complete disclosure on the label, consumers are left in the dark, making it difficult for shoppers to know if they are getting what they expect for the price.

Figure 2. Walmart and Giant Are Bottling Tap Water


The municipal water sources of the Walmart’s Sam’s Choice and Giant’s Acadia bottled waters were identified through contact with Walmart representatives, their bottled water manufacturer, and city/utility officials; or from the label (Giant). Data on the levels of disinfection byproducts (total trihalomethanes or TTHMs) in these municipal water sources were obtained from Notla Water Authority in Blairsville, Georgia; Las Vegas Valley Water District; and Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission. These data were from tap water tests carried out in 2007, which the water utilities disclosed to their customers in an annual report. For every utility the range of values from lowest to the highest represents the concentrations of TTHMs that were found in the tap water over the course of the year. Notla Water Authority provided a single value for TTHMs, not a range.

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Years back I invested in a small home distiller for around $200. No filters to replace. I run my drinking water through it and get very clean water. It's slow and takes 5 or 6 hours to make a gallon.


The tap water in the city reservoir is pretty good but it must flow through so many pipes and picks up rust etc. If you live in an older building you can get contaminated by lead unless you distill it.


Plastic bottles are nasty it seems. Tap water is risky. Distilling is the best of both worlds.

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I cook water every morning as I brush my teeth and so on, for about 20 minutes till the half of it evaporates, then let it stay for 2 min so that chalk sets down.

It tastes realy much better, only there are some energy costs.

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Distilled water is indeed pure Water--but it's pH may not be rate around 7 on the pH scale.


Pure spring water(s) will be replete with minerals [mostly & ideally all alkaline mineral --not to be confused with natural carbonated water(s)].


Of Course Distilled & Filtered waters are not toxic--but the real benefit is the flushing action of water is the basic hydration of the body.


Water must contain naturally occuring minerals or else it may be considered sterile and thus cause acidity within the body--which is the state of all illnesses.

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Distilled water is indeed pure Water--but it's pH may not be rate around 7 on the pH scale.


Pure spring water(s) will be replete with minerals [mostly & ideally all alkaline mineral --not to be confused with natural carbonated water(s)].


Of Course Distilled & Filtered waters are not toxic--but the real benefit is the flushing action of water is the basic hydration of the body.


Water must contain naturally occuring minerals or else it may be considered sterile and thus cause acidity within the body--which is the state of all illnesses.


Makes sense.


The problem is there are problems with spring water and all bottled waters (including distilled) after they are contained in those plastic containers. Glass no problem. I don't worry about minerals in water since I make most of it into herb teas or as a base for smoothies.


Some people talk of reverse osmosis being better than distilled. I don't understand any of this ph stuff really.

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pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

Pure water is said to be neutral. The pH for pure water at 25 °C is close to 7.0. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are said to be basic or alkaline. pH measurements are important for medicine, biology, chemistry, food science, environmental science, oceanography and many other applications.

Body fluids:

The pH of different body fluids, including urine, saliva, and blood, varies with function and other factors. They are mostly tightly regulated systems to keep the acid-base homeostasis. A notable acidic substance in the body is plaque. Plaque's pH is low and will dissolve teeth if not removed. The pH of blood is known to be slightly basic, at a value of 7.4. pH is vital in maintaining the functioning of cells. For example, enzymes are heavily affected by changes in pH, and have an optimum pH at which they operate. Outside a small range they can denature and cease to catalyse vital reactions.

In chemistry, an alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element.

Alkaline diet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Alkaline diet (also known as the alkaline acid diet and the acid alkaline diet) is a controversial dietary protocol based on the consumption of mainly fresh low sugar fruit, vegetables, roots and tubers, nuts, and legumes and avoiding grains, dairy, meat and excess salt, in order to balance the acidity and alkalinity (the "pH balance") of one's body.<SUP>[1]</SUP> In recent years it has been the subject of several popular diet books.<SUP>[2][3]</SUP>

Blood alkalinity (pH) is not significantly affected by diet,<SUP>[4][5]</SUP> except in extreme pathological cases (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis).

**Without any research supporting the claims made by these diets, many qualified dietitians, nutritionists and other health care professionals have not recommended these diets to their patients.<SUP>[6]</SUP>

A similar theory, called the Dr. Hay diet, was developed by the American physician William Howard Hay in the 1920s. A later theory, called nutripathy, was developed by another American, Gary A. Martin, in the 1970s.<SUP>[7]</SUP> Others who have promulgated alkaline-acid diets include Edgar Cayce, D. C. Jarvis, Robert Young, Herman Aihara,<SUP>[8]</SUP> Fred Shadian, and Victor A. Marcial-Vega.<SUP>[citation needed]</SUP>

**Bhaktajan's Footnote:

See Gary Null's Views on the medical Establishment :

Gary Null has attacked many facets of mainstream medicine.

He argues that physicians are not actively conspiring,

but are just trained and conditioned to accept the premises of their profession.

Null believes that physicians have an economic interest in sickness maintenance, not prevention.

Null co-authored a series of articles on cancer research, new therapies, and political influence for Penthouse,

beginning with one entitled "The Great Cancer Fraud".<SUP>[10][11]</SUP>

He accused the "medical community of suppressing alternative cancer treatments to protect

the medical establishment's solid-gold cancer train."

Time wrote: "From a young reporter this is to be expected.

But two decades later, Null, 54, is still warning of a variety of medical bogeymen out to gull a trusting public."<SUP>[9]</SUP>


Acids are used as additives to drinks and foods, as they alter their taste and serve as preservatives.

Phosphoric acid, for example, is a component of cola drinks.


Processed food use

Food-grade phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages such as various colas, but not without controversy regarding its health effects. It provides a tangy or sour taste and, being a mass-produced chemical, is available cheaply and in large quantities. The low cost and bulk availability is unlike more expensive natural seasonings that give comparable flavors, such as citric acid which is obtainable from lemons and limes. (However most citric acid in the food industry is not extracted from citrus fruit, but fermented by Aspergillus niger mold from scrap molasses, waste starch hydrolysates and phosphoric acid.) It is labeled as E number E338.

Biological effects on bone calcium and kidney health

Phosphoric acid, used in many soft drinks (primarily cola), has been linked to lower bone density in epidemiological studies. For example, a study<SUP>[2]</SUP> using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry rather than a questionnaire about breakage, provides reasonable evidence to support the theory that drinking cola results in lower bone density. This study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. A total of 1672 women and 1148 men were studied between 1996 and 2001. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire that had specific questions about the number of servings of cola and other carbonated beverages and that also made a differentiation between regular, caffeine-free, and diet drinks. The paper cites significant statistical evidence to show that women who consume cola daily have lower bone density. Total phosphorus intake was not significantly higher in daily cola consumers than in nonconsumers; however, the calcium-to-phosphorus ratios were lower. The study also suggests that further research is needed to confirm the findings.

On the other hand, a study funded by Pepsi suggests that low intake of phosphorus leads to lower bone density. The study does not examine the effect of phosphoric acid, which binds with magnesium and calcium in the digestive tract to form salts that are not absorbed, but, rather, it studies general phosphorus intake.<SUP>[3]</SUP>

However, a well-controlled clinical study by Heaney and Rafferty using calcium-balance methods found no impact of carbonated soft drinks containing phosphoric acid on calcium excretion.<SUP>[4]</SUP> The study compared the impact of water, milk, and various soft drinks (two with caffeine and two without; two with phosphoric acid and two with citric acid) on the calcium balance of 20- to 40-year-old women who customarily consumed ~3 or more cups (680 ml) of a carbonated soft drink per day. They found that, relative to water, only milk and the two caffeine-containing soft drinks increased urinary calcium, and that the calcium loss associated with the caffeinated soft drink consumption was about equal to that previously found for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine had no impact on urine calcium, nor did it augment the urinary calcium loss related to caffeine. Because studies have shown that the effect of caffeine is compensated for by reduced calcium losses later in the day,<SUP>[5]</SUP> Heaney and Rafferty concluded that the net effect of carbonated beverages – including those with caffeine and phosphoric acid - is negligible, and that the skeletal effects of carbonated soft drink consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.

Other chemicals such as caffeine (also a significant component of popular common cola drinks) were also suspected as possible contributors to low bone density, due to the known effect of caffeine on calciuria. One other study, comprised of 30 women over the course of a week, suggests that phosphoric acid in colas has no such effect, and postulates that caffeine has only a temporary effect, which is later reversed. The authors of this study conclude that the skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.<SUP>[4]</SUP> (Another possible confounding factor may be an association between high soft drink consumption and sedentary lifestyle.)

Cola consumption has also been linked to chronic kidney disease and kidney stones through medical research.<SUP>[6]</SUP> This study differentiated between the effects of cola (generally contains phosphoric acid), non-cola carbonated beverages (substitute citric acid) and coffee (control for caffeine), and found that drinking 2 or more colas per day more than doubled the incidence of kidney disease.

Medical use

Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings will be placed. Phosphoric acid is also an ingredient in over-the-counter anti-nausea medications that also contain high levels of sugar (glucose and fructose). It should not be used by diabetics without consultation with a doctor. This acid is also used in teeth whiteners to eliminate any plaque that may be on your teeth.


Acidosis is an increased acidity (i.e. an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it refers to acidity of the blood plasma.

Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35, while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes.

The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, physicians sometimes use the terms interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, where the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high or a low pH.

The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g. healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the pH of arterial blood (and therefore the extracellular fluid) outside this range result in irreversible cell damage (<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:place w:st="on"><st1:City w:st="on">Needham</st1:City></st1:place>, 2004).

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Respiratory acidosis

Respiratory acidosis results from a build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood (hypercapnia) due to hypoventilation. It is most often caused by pulmonary problems, although head injuries, drugs (especially anaesthetics and sedatives), and brain tumors can cause this acidemia. Pneumothorax, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, severe pneumonia, and aspiration are among the most frequent causes. It can also occur as a compensatory response to chronic metabolic alkalosis.

One key to distinguish between respiratory and metabolic acidosis is that in respiratory acidosis, the CO<SUB>2</SUB> is increased while the bicarbonate is either normal (uncompensated) or increased (compensated). Compensation occurs if respiratory acidosis is present, and a chronic phase is entered with partial buffering of the acidosis through renal bicarbonate retention.

However, in cases where chronic illnesses which compromise pulmonary function persist, such as late-stage emphysema and certain types of muscular dystrophy, compensatory mechanisms will be unable to reverse this acidotic condition. As metabolic bicarbonate production becomes exhausted, and extraeneous bicarbonate infusion can no longer reverse the extreme buildup of carbon dioxide associated with uncompensated respiratory acidosis, mechanical ventilation will usually be applied.

Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is an increased production of metabolic acids, usually resulting from

disturbances in the ability to excrete acid via the kidneys. Renal acidosis is associated with an

accumulation of urea and creatinine as well as metabolic acid residues of protein catabolism.

An increase in the production of other acids may also produce metabolic acidosis.

For example, lactic acidosis may occur from 1 severe (PaO<SUB>2</SUB> <36mm Hg) hypoxemia causing

a fall in the rate of oxygen diffusion from arterial blood to tissues, or 2 hypoperfusion (e.g. hypovolemic shock)

causing an inadequate blood delivery of oxygen to tissues.

A rise in lactate out of proportion to the level of pyruvate, e.g. in mixed venous blood,

is termed "excess lactate", and may also be an indicator of fermention due to anaerobic metabolism

occurring in muscle cells, as seen during strenuous exercise. Once oxygenation is restored,

the acidosis clears quickly. Another example of increased production of acids occurs in starvation and

diabetic acidosis. It is due to the accumulation of ketoacids (ketosis) and reflects a severe shift

from glycolysis to lipolysis for energy needs.

Acid consumption from poisoning, elevated levels of iron in the blood, and chronically

decreased production of bicarbonate may also produce metabolic acidosis.

Metabolic acidosis is compensated for in the lungs, as increased exhalation of

carbon dioxide promptly shifts the buffering equation to reduce metabolic acid.

This is a result of stimulation to chemoreceptors which increases alveolar ventilation,

leading to respiratory compensation, otherwise known as Kussmaul breathing (a specific type of hyperventilation). Should this situation persist the patient is at risk for exhaustion leading to respiratory failure.

Mutations to the V-ATPase 'a4' or 'B1' isoforms result in distal renal tubular acidosis,

a condition that leads to metabolic acidosis, in some cases with sensorineural deafness.

Arterial blood gasses will indicate low pH, low blood HCO<SUB>3</SUB>, and normal or low PaCO<SUB>2</SUB>.

In addition to arterial blood gas, an anion gap can also differentiate between possible causes.

The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is useful for calculating blood pH, because blood is a buffer solution. The amount of metabolic acid accumulating can also be quantitated by using buffer base deviation, a derivative estimate of the metabolic as opposed to the respiratory component. In hypovolemic shock for example, approximately 50% of the metabolic acid accumulation is lactic acid, which disappears as blood flow and oxygen debt are corrected.

Treatment of uncompensated metabolic acidosis is focused upon correcting the underlying problem. When metabolic acidosis is severe and can no longer be compensated for adequately by the lungs, neutralizing the acidosis with infusions of bicarbonate may be required.


Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body.

For survival, acid-base homeostasis is an absolute requirement.

The traditional approach to the study of acid-base physiology has been the empiric approach.

The main variants are the base excess approach and the bicarbonate approach.

The modern quantitative approach introduced by Peter A Stewart in 1978<SUP>[1]</SUP> is now

emerging as the most correct approach.

pH parturition

pH parturition is the tendency for acids to accumulate in basic fluid compartments,

and bases to accumulate in acidic compartments.

The reason is that acids become negatively electric charged in basic fluids,

since they donate a proton. On the other hand, bases become positively electric charged in acid fluids,

since they receive a proton.

Since electric charge decrease the membrane permeability of substances,

once an acid enters a basic fluid and becomes electrically charged,

then it cannot escape that compartment with ease and therefore accumulates, and vice versa with bases.


Alkalosis refers to a condition reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).

Generally alkalosis is said to occur when pH of the blood exceeds 7.45. The opposite condition is acidosis.


The main cause of respiratory alkalosis is hyperventilation,

resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide.

Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering

intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related consumption of bicarbonate,

both of which would lower blood pH.

Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by prolonged vomiting,

resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid with the stomach content.

Severe dehydration, and the consumption of alkali are other causes.

It can also be caused by administration of diuretics and endocrine disorders

such as Cushing's syndrome.

Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs

to increase serum carbon dioxide, a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis.

Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied with hypokalemia.

As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis,

and visa versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions.

As the pH of blood increases, the protein in the blood becomes more ionised into anions.

This causes the free calcium present in blood to bind storngly with protein.

The hypocalcemia, if severe, may cause tetany (Alkalotic tetany).


Bhaktajan: In Ayurveda, there is the term, 'AMA' --putrified un-eliminated foodstuff that rot in the intestine and then seep through the intestinal wall and cause illness by being distributed by the various circulatory systems to various bodily locations.

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What about if water can store the experience of happily flowing through a clean mountain stream with all kinds of birds chirping and beautiful nature around? Would this not be a different water like water heated in an iron pot?



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What about if water can store the experience of happily flowing through a clean mountain stream with all kinds of birds chirping and beautiful nature around? Would this not be a different water like water heated in an iron pot?




Water should have connection to mother earth. I read in some scriptures that if you drink tap water all kinds of evil things happen, that is why othodox brahmins hold water in pots.


On the other side there should be some prana in water, it should flow, should not become stale. If you cook water it gets some prana.


I don`t use water cooker since electrolysis releases also some gases in the air.


But in cooked tap water there is no vitamin B12, and not so many minerals and no bird chirps.

Chlor is destroying our arteries, causing heart problems.


But thanks to maharishi ayurveda I cook my water for many years now.

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